The Daikon Invariant Detector User Manual

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Daikon Invariant Detector User Manual

This is the user manual for the Daikon invariant detector. It describes Daikon version 5.0.6, released March 28, 2014.

Table of Contents


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1 Introduction

Daikon is an implementation of dynamic detection of likely invariants; that is, the Daikon invariant detector reports likely program invariants. An invariant is a property that holds at a certain point or points in a program; these are often seen in assert statements, documentation, and formal specifications. Invariants can be useful in program understanding and a host of other applications. Examples include ‘x.field > abs(y)’; ‘y = 2*x+3’; ‘array a is sorted’; ‘for all list objects lst, lst.next.prev = lst’; ‘for all treenode objects n, n.left.value < n.right.value’; ‘p != null => p.content in myArray’; and many more. You can extend Daikon to add new properties (see Enhancing Daikon output, or see New invariants in Daikon Developer Manual).

Dynamic invariant detection runs a program, observes the values that the program computes, and then reports properties that were true over the observed executions. Daikon can detect properties in C, C++, C#, Eiffel, F#, Java, Perl, and Visual Basic programs; in spreadsheet files; and in other data sources. (Dynamic invariant detection is a machine learning technique that can be applied to arbitrary data.) It is easy to extend Daikon to other applications.

Daikon is freely available for download from download-site. The distribution includes both source code and documentation, and Daikon’s license permits unrestricted use (see License). Many researchers and practitioners have used Daikon; those uses, and Daikon itself, are described in various publications.

For more information on Daikon, see Introduction in Daikon Developer Manual. For instance, the Daikon Developer Manual indicates how to extend Daikon with new invariants, new derived variables, and front ends for new languages. It also contains information about the implementation and about debugging flags.


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1.1 Mailing lists

The following mailing lists (and their archives) are available:

daikon-announce@googlegroups.com

A low-volume, announcement-only list. For example, announcements of new releases are sent to this list. To subscribe, visit http://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/daikon-announce.

daikon-discuss@googlegroups.com

A moderated list for the community of Daikon users. Use it to share tips and successes, and to get help with questions or problems (after checking the documentation). To subscribe, visit http://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/daikon-discuss.

daikon-developers@googlegroups.com

This list goes to the Daikon maintainers. Use it for bug reports, suggestions, and the like. If you are an active contributor to Daikon, you may send mail to the list asking to be added.


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2 Installing Daikon

Shortcut for the impatient: skip directly to the installation instructions for See Unix/Linux/MacOSX installation, or See Windows installation.

There are two main ways to install Daikon. See Simple installation, for a simple 2-step installation process that is adequate for the needs of many users. See Complete installation, for a complete installation, in 4 easy steps, that permits you to use all of the functionality in the Daikon distribution.

Use the simple installation instructions if you only wish to detect invariants in Java programs. Use the complete installation instructions (which are easy to follow) if you wish to detect invariants in C or Perl programs, if you wish to run certain other programs distributed with Daikon in its scripts/ directory, or if you wish to edit and recompile the source code of Daikon itself.

Differences from previous versions of Daikon appear in the file doc/CHANGES in the distribution. To be notified of new releases, or to join discussions about Daikon, subscribe to one of the mailing lists (see Mailing lists).


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2.1 Simple installation instructions

Daikon is written in Java. In order to run Daikon, all you really need is the daikon.jar file, which is included in the distribution or can be downloaded separately from http://plse.cs.washington.edu/daikon/download/daikon.jar. Place daikon.jar on your classpath so that Java can find it. You are now ready to use Daikon!

There are two additional requirements. You must have a Java 7 (or later) JVM (Java Virtual Machine). The tools.jar file that comes with your JVM must also be on your classpath.

See Installing Daikon, for situations where you should follow the complete installation instructions of Complete installation. (Also, if you do not know how to add a jar file to your classpath, then use the complete installation instructions, which walks you through the process.)


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2.2 Complete installation instructions

This section gives step-by-step instructions for installing Daikon.

Here is an overview of the steps. Details appear below; select the instructions for your operating system.

  1. Download Daikon.
  2. Place three commands in your shell initialization file.
  3. Optionally, customize your installation.
  4. Optionally, compile Daikon and build other tools by running make.

For more complete information on compiling Daikon, see Compiling Daikon in Daikon Developer Manual.


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2.2.1 Requirements for running Daikon

In order to run Daikon, you must have a Java 7 (or later) JVM (Java Virtual Machine). You must also have a Java 7 (or later) compiler.


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2.2.1.1 Optional requirements for running Daikon

All the remaining requirements listed here are optional (they enable you to perform certain additional tasks with Daikon).

If you plan to use one of Daikon’s source-based front ends, then you need a compiler for whatever language your target programs are written in. For instance, if you wish to analyze C or C++ programs, you need a C or C++ compiler such as GCC. Source code and a compiler are not necessary if you plan to use one of Daikon’s front ends that work on binaries, such as Chicory (see Chicory) or Kvasir (see Kvasir).

If you wish to edit the Daikon source code and re-compile Daikon, see Compiling Daikon in Daikon Developer Manual.


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2.2.2 Unix/Linux/MacOSX installation

  1. Choose the directory where you want to install Daikon; we’ll call this the daikonparent directory. In this directory, download and unpack Daikon.
    cd daikonparent
    wget http://plse.cs.washington.edu/daikon/download/daikon.tar.gz
    tar zxf daikon.tar.gz
    

    This creates a daikonparent/daikon/ subdirectory.

  2. Place three commands in your shell initialization file: set two environment variables and source a Daikon startup file.

    We will assume that your are using the bash shell or its variants. Add these three commands to your ~/.bashrc or ~/.bash_profile file:

    # The full pathname of the directory that contains Daikon
    export DAIKONDIR=daikonparent/daikon
    # The full pathname of the directory that contains the Java JDK; e.g.:
    export JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java
    source $DAIKONDIR/scripts/daikon.bashrc
    

    After editing your shell initialization file, either execute the commands you placed in it, or else log out and log back in to achieve the same effect.

  3. Optionally, customize other variables. The customizable variables are listed in the Daikon startup file: daikon.bashrc.

    You may customize them by setting environment variables, or by adding a Makefile.user file to directory $DAIKONDIR/java (it is automatically read at the beginning of the main Makefile, and prevents you from having to edit the main Makefile directly).

  4. Optionally, compile Daikon and build other tools by running make. Note that this step is not required if you only want to use Daikon with its Java front end (Chicory). This step is required for using Daikon with its C/C++ front end (Kvasir), and for other tools.
    cd $DAIKONDIR/java
    make
    

    This builds the various executables used by Daikon, such as the C/C++ front end Kvasir (see Installing Kvasir) and the JDK for use with DynComp (see Instrumenting the JDK with DynComp). For more information about compiling Daikon, see Compiling Daikon in Daikon Developer Manual.

    Note that running this make command may take 20 minutes or more, depending on your computer.

    Optionally, download other executables, such as the Simplify theorem prover (http://www.hpl.hp.com/downloads/crl/jtk/).


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2.2.3 Windows installation

To perform a complete install on Windows, it is necessary to install the Cygwin toolset. After you have installed Daikon, you can run it using either Cygwin or the regular Windows shell (see Running Daikon under Windows).

The Cygwin toolset (available at http://cygwin.com/) contains everything you need to compile and run Linux programs under Windows. You can install Cygwin by running the appropriate setup program; either http://cygwin.com/setup-x86.exe or http://cygwin.com/setup-x86_64.exe, as determined by your machine type. The default installation of Cygwin is sufficient for installing Daikon.

  1. Choose the directory where you want to install Daikon; we’ll call this the daikonparent directory. In this directory, download and unpack Daikon.
    cd daikonparent
    wget http://plse.cs.washington.edu/daikon/download/daikon.tar.gz
    tar zxf daikon.tar.gz
    

    This creates a daikonparent/daikon/ subdirectory.

  2. Place three commands in your shell initialization file ~/.bashrc: set two environment variables and source a Daikon startup file. Do not use a Windows shell; use the Cygwin bash shell instead.
    # The full pathname of the directory that contains Daikon
    export DAIKONDIR=daikonparent/daikon
    # The full Linux pathname of the directory that contains the Java JDK
    export JAVA_HOME=/cygdrive/c/Program Files/Java/jdk1.7.0_45
    source $DAIKONDIR/scripts/daikon.bashrc
    

    Use the Cygwin/Linux path style (e.g., /cygdrive/c/daikon) rather than the windows path style (C:\daikon). Some users have reported problems when using pathnames with spaces. You can avoid the problem by using the ln command to add a symbolic link without spaces to Program Files.

    cd /cygdrive/c
    ln -s "Program Files" program_files
    

    and then the JAVA_HOME line becomes:

    export JAVA_HOME=/cygdrive/c/program_files/Java/jdk1.7.0_45
    

    After editing your shell initialization file, either execute the commands you placed in it, or else log out and log back in to achieve the same effect.

  3. Optionally, customize other variables. The customizable variables are listed in the Daikon startup file: daikon.bashrc.

    You may customize them by setting environment variables, or by adding a Makefile.user file to directory $DAIKONDIR/java (it is automatically read at the beginning of the main Makefile, and prevents you from having to edit the main Makefile directly).

    The one variable you must customize is to define the OSTYPE variable to be ‘cygwin’.

    OSTYPE = cygwin
    
  4. Optionally, compile Daikon and build other tools by running make. Note that this step is not required if you only want to use Daikon with its Java front end (Chicory). This step is required for using Daikon with its C/C++ front end (Kvasir), and for other tools.
    cd $DAIKONDIR
    make
    

    This builds the various executables used by Daikon, such as the C/C++ front end Kvasir (see Installing Kvasir) and the JDK for use with DynComp (see Instrumenting the JDK with DynComp). For more information about compiling Daikon, see Compiling Daikon in Daikon Developer Manual.

    Note that running this make command may take 20 minutes or more, depending on your computer. On Windows, running make requires that Cygwin be installed.

    Optionally, download other executables, such as the Simplify theorem prover (http://www.hpl.hp.com/downloads/crl/jtk/), or the Z3 theorem prover (http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/redmond/projects/z3/; Z3 can replace Simplify but is only distributed for Windows).


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2.2.4 Running Daikon under Windows

After you have installed Daikon under Windows (see Windows installation), you can run it either using native Windows utilities, or using the Cygwin environment — it’s your choice.

Daikon is a command-line application (and so are its related programs, such as Chicory). You should invoke them from a command shell — either a Windows command shell or a Cygwin command shell — rather than by double-clicking their icons. In any event, double-clicking would not supply the proper arguments to the program.

First, a little background/review. Java on Linux separates its CLASSPATH entries using the colon (‘:’) while Java on Windows separates the entries with a semi-colon (‘;’). There is a good reason for this; on Windows the colon would have been impractical as it is used in file paths (c:\); on Linux the semi-colon is impractical, as it is used to end a command line. The tricky bit is that Cygwin provides a Linux like environment on top of Windows. So Cygwin mainly wants colon separators but java is a Windows application, so it wants semi-colons. Another point is that when a Cygwin shell starts up, it copies the Windows environment into its Linux like environment with no changes - except for the PATH variable. This it converts to Linux format (with colons) and adds "/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:" to the front. Hence, it is all set to run both Cygwin and existing Windows applications.


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2.2.4.1 Windows command line

The first option is to run Daikon using native Windows utilities. The is done in the normal fashion. However, getting the correct value for CLASSPATH can be confusing. As noted above, it must be specified in Windows format (Windows paths and semicolon separators). It must include either $DAIKONDIR/daikon.jar or $DAIKONDIR/java (if you have recompiled the Daikon source). A typical example for CLASSPATH might be:

C:\cygwin64\home\user\invariants\daikon\daikon.jar;.;C:\Program Files
(x86)\QuickTime\QTSystem\QTJava.zip;C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.7.0_45\
jre\lib\rt.jar;C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.7.0_45\lib\tools.jar

With this done, one may enter: java daikon.Daikon in any directory and Daikon should start up correctly.


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2.2.4.2 Cygwin shell

The second option for Windows (and the one we recommend) is to run Daikon using the Cygwin toolset (available at http://cygwin.com/), which contains everything you need to compile and run Linux programs under Windows. You can install Cygwin by simply running one of the setup programs (based on your machine type) found at http://cygwin.com/.

As noted above, when running any Java program (such as Daikon or Chicory), the CLASSPATH must be specified in Windows format. Your initial install of the Java JDK will have set the basics for the CLASSPATH. When you installed Daikon, you were instructed to place into your shell initialization file commands to set DAIKONDIR and JAVA_HOME and then source $DAIKONDIR/scripts/daikon.bashrc. This will set CLASSPATH properly each time you start a Bash shell. The result should be a value for CLASSPATH that looks something like:

C:\cygwin64\home\user\invariants\daikon\daikon.jar;.;C:\Program Files
(x86)\QuickTime\QTSystem\QTJava.zip;C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.7.0_45\
jre\lib\rt.jar;C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.7.0_45\lib\tools.jar

If you wish to override CLASSPATH by using the -classpath (or -cp) option, you need to remember that the result must be in Windows format. This can get confusing because the Cygwin bash interpreter is going to process the command line prior to handing it off to java. Hence:

java -cp c:\cygwin64\home\user\invariants\daikon\daikon.jar daikon.Daikon 

will fail as the backslash ‘\’ is processed by bash and removed. Any of the following will work:

java -cp c:\\cygwin64\\home\\user\\invariants\\daikon\\daikon.jar daikon.Daikon 
java -cp "c:\cygwin64\home\user\invariants\daikon\daikon.jar" daikon.Daikon 
java -cp c:/cygwin64/home/user/invariants/daikon/daikon.jar daikon.Daikon 

The last is interesting as this is almost the same as on “real” Linux. Windows accepts either forward (‘/’) or backward (‘\’) slashes as directory separators in paths. There are similar command parsing issues with parenthesis and blanks. These are legal in Windows paths, but will cause bash to get confused. In general, enclosing a valid Windows path within double quotes (‘"’) is the preferred way to avoid these problems. If you find it more convenient to use Linux paths, or want to use an existing environment variable that contains a Linux path, the cygpath tool will do the job. Thus, instead of:

java -cp $HOME/invariants/daikon/daikon.jar daikon.Daikon 

(which will fail), use

java -cp `cygpath -wp $HOME/invariants/daikon/daikon.jar` daikon.Daikon 

(note the back quotes ‘`’) and everything should work as expected. Or even better:

java -cp "`cygpath -wp $HOME/invariants/daikon/daikon.jar`" daikon.Daikon 

since there may be some Windows path characters contained in the environment variables.


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3 Example usage for Java, C/C++, C#/F#/Visual Basic, Perl, and Eiffel

Detecting invariants involves two steps:

  1. Obtain one or more data trace files by running your program under the control of a front end (also known as an instrumenter or tracer) that records information about variable values. You can run your program over one or more inputs of your own choosing, such as regression tests or a typical user input session. You may choose to obtain trace data for only part of your program; this can avoid inundating you with output, and can also improve performance.
  2. Run the Daikon invariant detector over the data trace files (see Running Daikon). This detects invariants in the recorded information. You can view the invariants textually, or process them with a variety of tools.

Often, you can run a single command that performs both steps. Among other benefits, this can avoid the need to create the data trace file by sending trace information directly from the instrumented program to Daikon, which is called online execution of Daikon.

This section briefly describes how to obtain data traces for Java, C, C#, Perl, and Eiffel programs, and how to run Daikon. For detailed information about these and other front ends that are available for Daikon, see Front ends (instrumentation).


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3.1 Detecting invariants in Java programs

In order to detect invariants in a Java program, run the program using the Chicory front end (see Chicory) to create a data trace file, then run Daikon itself to detect invariants. With the --daikon option to Chicory, a single command performs both steps.

For example, if you usually run

java mypackage.MyClass arg1 arg2 arg3

then instead you would run

java daikon.Chicory --daikon mypackage.MyClass arg1 arg2 arg3

and the Daikon output is written to the terminal.


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3.1.1 StackAr example

The Daikon distribution contains some sample programs that will help you get practice in running Daikon.

To detect invariants in the StackAr sample program, perform the following steps after installing Daikon (see Installing Daikon).

  1. Compile the program with the -g switch to enable debugging symbols. (The program and test suite appear in the DataStructures subdirectory directory.)
    cd examples/java-examples/StackAr
    javac -g DataStructures/*.java
    
  2. Run the program under the control of the Chicory front end, pass the information to Daikon, print the inferred invariants, and write a binary representation of the invariants to StackArTester.inv.gz.
    java daikon.Chicory --daikon DataStructures.StackArTester
    

    If you have not set the CLASSPATH as yet, you may add it to the command line for now - but don’t forget to set it later.

    java -cp "../../../daikon.jar:." daikon.Chicory --daikon DataStructures.StackArTester
    

    Alternately, replacing the --daikon argument by --daikon-online has the same effect, but does not write a data trace file to disk.

If you wish to have more control over the invariant detection process, you can split the second step above into multiple steps. Then, the whole process would be as follows:

  1. Compile the program with the -g switch to enable debugging symbols. (The program and test suite appear in the DataStructures subdirectory directory.)
    cd examples/java-examples/StackAr
    javac -g DataStructures/*.java
    
  2. Run the program under the control of the Chicory front end, in order to create a trace file named StackArTester.dtrace.gz.
    java daikon.Chicory DataStructures.StackArTester
    
  3. Run Daikon on the trace file.
    java daikon.Daikon StackArTester.dtrace.gz
    

    Daikon can analyze multiple runs (executions) of the program. You can supply Daikon with multiple trace files:

    java daikon.Chicory --dtrace-file=StackArTester1.dtrace.gz DataStructures.StackArTester
    java daikon.Chicory --dtrace-file=StackArTester2.dtrace.gz DataStructures.StackArTester
    java daikon.Chicory --dtrace-file=StackArTester3.dtrace.gz DataStructures.StackArTester
    java daikon.Daikon StackArTester*.dtrace.gz
    

    (In this example, all the runs are identical, so multiple runs yield the same invariants as one run.)

  4. Examine the invariants. (They were also printed to standard out by the previous step.)

    There are various ways to do this.


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3.1.2 Using DynComp with Java programs

DynComp can help to filter Daikon’s output by omitting invariants involving unrelated variables (see DynComp for Java). To do so, run DynComp on the target program first, then pass the resulting .decls file to Chicory. The process would be as follows:

  1. Compile the program with the -g switch to enable debugging symbols. (The program and test suite appear in the DataStructures subdirectory of the StackAr directory.)
    cd examples/java-examples/StackAr
    javac -g DataStructures/*.java
    
  2. Run the program with DynComp to generate comparability information. You should produce an instrumented version of the JDK first (see Instrumenting the JDK with DynComp). By default, comparability information is written to StackArTester.decls-DynComp.
    java daikon.DynComp DataStructures.StackArTester
    
  3. Run the program under the control of the Chicory front end, including comparability information. Pass the information to Daikon, print the inferred invariants, and write a binary representation of the invariants to StackArTester.inv.gz. Note that this runs the target program for a second time.
    java daikon.Chicory --daikon \
         --comparability-file=StackArTester.decls-DynComp \
         DataStructures.StackArTester
    

You could split the third step into multiple steps, as described in StackAr example, to gain more control over the invariant detection process.


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3.1.3 Understanding the invariants

This section examines some of the invariants for the StackAr example. For more help interpreting invariants, see Interpreting output.

The StackAr example is an array-based stack implementation. Take a look at DataStructures/StackAr.java to get a sense of the implementation. Now, look at the first section of Daikon output.

======================================================================
StackAr:::OBJECT
this.theArray != null
this.theArray.getClass() == java.lang.Object[].class
this.topOfStack >= -1
this.theArray[this.topOfStack+1..] elements == null
this.theArray[0..this.topOfStack] elements != null
this.topOfStack <= size(this.theArray[])-1
======================================================================

These six annotations describe the representation invariant. The array is never null, and its runtime type is Object[]. The topOfStack index is at least -1 and is less than the length of the array. Finally, the elements of the array are non-null if their index is no more than topOfStack and are null otherwise.

Next, look at the invariants for the top() method. top() has two different exit points, at lines 78 and 79 in the original source. There is a set of invariants for each exit point, as well as a set of invariants that hold for all exit points. Look at the invariants when top() returns at line 79.

======================================================================
StackAr.top():::EXIT79
return == this.theArray[this.topOfStack]
this.theArray == orig(this.theArray)
this.theArray[] == orig(this.theArray[])
this.topOfStack == orig(this.topOfStack)
return != null
this.topOfStack >= 0
this.theArray[this.topOfStack+1..] elements == this.theArray[-1]
======================================================================

The return value is never null, and is equal to the array element at index topOfStack. The top of the stack is at least 0. The array, the elements of the array, and topOfStack are not modified by this method — this method is an observer. The last invariant is not particularly interesting.


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3.1.4 Understanding DynComp

To get a sense of how DynComp helps eliminate uninteresting output, take a look at the invariants for the exit point at line 32 of the createItem(int) method.

======================================================================
DataStructures.StackArTester.createItem(int):::EXIT32
this.phase == 4
return.getClass() == int[].class
this.s.topOfStack < orig(i)
this.phase < orig(i)
this.phase != size(this.s.theArray[])
this.maxPhase < orig(i)
======================================================================

The value of phase is always less than the value of i. While this is true for the observed executions, it is not a helpful invariant, since phase and i represent different abstract types; i is a number to be pushed onto the stack, while phase is used for program flow control. Although they are both ints, comparing the two is not meaningful, so this invariant, among others, is omitted from the output when Daikon is run with DynComp.

======================================================================
DataStructures.StackArTester.createItem(int):::EXIT32
this.phase == 4
return.getClass() == int[].class
this.s.topOfStack < orig(i)
======================================================================

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3.1.5 A second Java example

A second example is located in the examples/java-examples/QueueAr subdirectory. Run this sample using the following steps:

Alternately, you can split the second command into two parts:


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3.2 Detecting invariants in C/C++ programs

In order to detect invariants over C or C++ programs, you must first install a C/C++ front end (instrumenter). We recommend that you use Kvasir (see Kvasir), and this section gives examples using Kvasir.

To use the C/C++ front end Kvasir with your program, first make sure that your program has been compiled with DWARF-2 format debugging information, such as by giving the -gdwarf-2 flag to GCC when compiling. Then, run your program as usual, but prepend kvasir-dtrace to the command line.

For more information about Kvasir, including more detailed documentation on its command-line options, see Kvasir.


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3.2.1 C examples

The Daikon distribution comes with several example C programs in the examples/c-examples directory to enable users to become familiar with running Daikon on C programs.

To detect invariants for a program with Kvasir, you need to perform two basic tasks: run the program under Kvasir to create a data trace file (steps 1–2), and run Daikon over the data trace file to produce invariants (steps 3–4). The following instructions are for the wordplay example, which is a program for finding anagrams.

  1. Change to the directory containing the program.
    cd $DAIKONDIR/examples/c-examples/wordplay
    
  2. Compile the program with DWARF-2 debugging information enabled (and all optimizations disabled).
    gcc -gdwarf-2 wordplay.c -o wordplay
    

    Kvasir can also be used for programs constructed by compiling a number of .c files separately, and then linking them together; in such a program, specify -gdwarf-2 when compiling each source file containing code you wish to see invariants about.

  3. Run the program just as you normally would, but prepend kvasir-dtrace to the command line.
    kvasir-dtrace ./wordplay -f words.txt 'daikon dynamic invariant detector'
    

    Any options to the program can be specified as usual; here, for instance, we give commands to look for anagrams of the phrase “Daikon Dynamic Invariant Detector” using words from the file words.txt.

    Executing under Kvasir, the program runs normally, but Kvasir executes additional checks and collects trace information (for this reason, the program will run more slowly than usual). Kvasir creates a directory named daikon-output under the current directory, and creates the wordplay.dtrace file, which lists both variable declarations and values.

    Kvasir will also print messages if it observes your program doing something with undefined effects; these may indicate bugs in your program, or they may be spurious. (If they are bugs, they can also be tracked down by using Valgrind (http://www.valgrind.org/) with its regular memory checking tool; if they do not appear with that tool, they are probably spurious).

  4. Run Daikon on the trace file.
    java daikon.Daikon \
         --config_option daikon.derive.Derivation.disable_derived_variables=true \
         daikon-output/wordplay.dtrace
    

    The invariants are printed to standard output, and a binary representation of the invariants is written to wordplay.inv.gz. Note that the example uses a configuration option to disable the use of derived variables; it can also run without that option, but takes significantly longer.

    Daikon can analyze multiple runs (executions) of the program. You can supply Daikon with multiple trace files:

    kvasir-dtrace --dtrace-file=daikon-output/wordplay1.dtrace \
        ./wordplay -f words.txt 'daikon dynamic invariant detector'
    kvasir-dtrace --dtrace-file=daikon-output/wordplay2.dtrace \
        ./wordplay -f words.txt 'better results from multiple runs'
    kvasir-dtrace --dtrace-file=daikon-output/wordplay3.dtrace \
        ./wordplay -f words.txt 'more testing equals better testing'
    java -Xmx256m daikon.Daikon daikon-output/wordplay*.dtrace
    

    or, you can append information from multiple runs in a single trace file:

    kvasir-dtrace --dtrace-file=daikon-output/wordplay-all.dtrace \
        ./wordplay -f words.txt 'daikon dynamic invariant detector'
    kvasir-dtrace --dtrace-append --dtrace-file=daikon-output/wordplay-all.dtrace \
        ./wordplay -f words.txt 'better results from multiple runs'
    kvasir-dtrace --dtrace-append --dtrace-file=daikon-output/wordplay-all.dtrace \
        ./wordplay -f words.txt 'more testing equals better testing'
    java -Xmx256m daikon.Daikon daikon-output/wordplay-all.dtrace
    
  5. Examine the invariants. As described in StackAr example, there are several ways to do this:

    For help understanding the invariants, see Interpreting output.


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3.2.2 Using DynComp with C programs

Optionally, the DynComp tool can be used along with Kvasir and Daikon. DynComp uses a dynamic analysis to infer which program variables can meaningfully be used together; Daikon can then use this information to restrict the invariants it considers, potentially improving both its performance and the usefulness of its results.

DynComp is enabled as an extra mode of Kvasir; when running with DynComp enabled, Kvasir produces two output files instead of one: in addition to a .dtrace file containing a trace of a particular execution, the information about what variables and functions exist in a program, along with information grouping the variables into abstract types, is stored in a file with the extension .decls. Both of these files must be supplied to Daikon.

For instance, to repeat the wordplay example with DynComp, first rerun kvasir-dtrace giving it the option --with-dyncomp:

kvasir-dtrace --with-dyncomp \
   ./wordplay -f words.txt 'daikon dynamic invariant detector'

Then, supply the .decls file when invoking Daikon:

java daikon.Daikon \
     --config_option daikon.derive.Derivation.disable_derived_variables=true \
     daikon-output/wordplay.decls daikon-output/wordplay.dtrace

For instance, one effect of DynComp that can be seen in the wordplay example concerns the global variables largestlet, rec_anag_count, adjacentdups, specfirstword, maxdepthspec, and silent. These variables are all 0 in the sample execution (for instance, several of them correspond to command-line options that are not enabled), so without DynComp, Daikon gives the invariants that they are all equal. However, DynComp’s analysis finds that the variables are of different abstract types, so it is not meaningful to compare them. When DynComp information is provided, Daikon instead gives separate invariants about the value of each variable.


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3.2.3 Dealing with large examples

Since the default memory size used by a Java virtual machine varies, we suggest that Daikon be run with at least 256 megabytes of memory (and perhaps much more), specified for many JVMs by the option -Xmx256m. For more information about specifying the memory usage for Daikon, see Out of memory.

Disk usage can be reduced by specifying that the front end should compress its output .dtrace files.

In some cases, the time and space requirements of the examples can be reduced by reducing the length of the program run. However, Daikon’s running time depends on both the length of the test run and the size of the program data (such as its use of global variables and nested data structures). The examples also demonstrate disabling derived variables, which significantly improves Daikon’s performance at the cost of producing fewer invariants. For more techniques for using Daikon with large programs and long program runs, see Large dtrace files.


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3.3 Detecting invariants in C#, F#, and Visual Basic programs

The Daikon front end for .NET languages (C#, F#, and Visual Basic) is called Celeriac.

Please see its documentation at http://code.google.com/p/daikon-dot-net-front-end/wiki/GettingStarted.


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3.4 Detecting invariants in Perl programs

The Daikon front end for Perl is called dfepl.

Using the Perl front end is a two-pass process: first you must run the annotated program so that the runtime system can dynamically infer the kind of data stored in each variable, and then you must re-annotate and re-run the program with the added type information. This is necessary because Perl programs do not contain type declarations.

dfepl requires version 5.8 or later of Perl.


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3.4.1 Instrumenting Perl programs

Perl programs must be instrumented twice. First they must be instrumented without type information. Then, once the first instrumented version has been run to produce type information, they must be instrumented again taking the type information into account.

To instrument a stand-alone Perl program, invoke dfepl with the name of the program as an argument.

dfepl program.pl

To instrument a Perl module or a collection of modules, invoke dfepl either with the name of each module, or with the name of a directory containing the modules. To instrument all the modules in the current directory, give dfepl the argument .. For instance, if the current directory contains a module Acme::Trampoline in Acme/Trampoline.pm and another module Acme::Date in Acme/Date.pm, they can be annotated by either of the following two commands:

dfepl Acme/Trampoline.pm Acme/Date.pm
dfepl .

Once type information is available, run the instrumentation command again with the -T or -t options added to use the produced type information.

For more information about dfepl, see dfepl.


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3.4.2 Perl examples

The Daikon distribution includes sample Perl programs suitable for use with Daikon in the examples/perl-examples directory.

Here are step-by-step instructions for examining a simple module, Birthday.pm, as used by a test script test-bday.pl.

  1. Change to the directory containing the Birthday.pm module.
    cd examples/perl-examples
    
  2. Instrument the Birthday.pm file.
    dfepl Birthday.pm
    

    This command creates a directory daikon-untyped, and puts the instrumented version of Birthday.pm into daikon-untyped/Birthday.pm. As the directory name implies, this instrumented version doesn’t contain type information.

  3. Run a test suite using the instrumented Birthday.pm file.
    dtype-perl test_bday.pl 10
    

    The dtype-perl is a script that runs Perl with the appropriate command line options to find the modules used by the Daikon Perl runtime tracing modules, and to use the instrumented versions of modules in daikon-untyped in preference to their original ones. The number 10 is an argument to the test_bday.pl script telling it to run a relatively short test.

    This will also generate a file daikon-instrumented/Birthday.types recording the type of each variable seen during the execution of the instrumented program.

  4. Re-annotate the module using the type information.
    dfepl -T Birthday.pm
    

    This step repeats step 2, except that the -T flag to dfepl tells it to use the type information generated in the previous step, and to put the output in the directory daikon-instrumented. dfepl also converts the type information into a file daikon-output/Birthday.decls containing subroutine declarations suitable for Daikon.

  5. Run the full test suite with the type-instrumented Birthday.pm.
    dtrace-perl test_bday.pl 30
    

    Here we run another test suite, which happens to be the same test_bday.pl, but running for longer. (The example will also work with a smaller number). The script dtrace-perl is similar to dtype-perl mentioned earlier, but looks for instrumented source files in daikon-instrumented.

    This creates daikon-output/test_bday-combined.dtrace, a trace file containing the values of variables at each invocation. (The filename is formed from the name of the test program, with -combined appended because it contains the trace information from all the instrumented modules invoked from the program).

  6. Change to the daikon-output directory to analyze the output.
    cd daikon-output
    
  7. Run Daikon on the trace file
    java daikon.Daikon Birthday.decls test_bday-combined.dtrace
    
  8. Examine the invariants. They are printed to standard output, and they are also saved to file Birthday.inv.gz, which you can manipulate with the PrintInvariants program and other Daikon tools. For example:
    java daikon.PrintInvariants Birthday.inv.gz
    

    Invariants produced from Perl programs can be examined using the same tools as other Daikon invariants.

In the example above, the script test_bday.pl was not itself instrumented; it was only used to test the instrumented code. The Perl front end can also be used to instrument stand-alone Perl programs. The following sequence of commands, similar to those above, show how Daikon can be used with the stand-alone program standalone.pl, also in the examples/perl-examples directory.

dfepl standalone.pl
dtype-perl daikon-untyped/standalone.pl
dfepl -T standalone.pl
dtrace-perl daikon-instrumented/standalone.pl
cd daikon-output
java daikon.Daikon -o standalone.inv standalone-main.decls \
     standalone-combined.dtrace

Note two differences when running a stand-alone program. First, the instrumented versions of the program, in the daikon-untyped or daikon-instrumented directory, are run directly. Second, the declarations file is named after the package in which the subroutines were declared, but since every stand-alone program uses the main package, the name of the program is prepended to the .decls file name to avoid collisions.


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3.5 Detecting invariants in Eiffel programs

CITADEL is an Eiffel front-end to the Daikon invariant detector. You can obtain Citadel and its documentation from http://se.inf.ethz.ch/people/polikarpova/citadel/.


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4 Running Daikon

This section describes how to run Daikon on a data trace (.dtrace) file, and describes Daikon’s command-line options. This section assumes you have already run a front end (e.g., an instrumenter) to produce a .dtrace file (and optionally .decls and .spinfo files); to learn more about that process, see Example usage, and see Front ends (instrumentation).

Run the Daikon invariant detector via the command

java daikon.Daikon [flags] dtrace-files... \
     [decls-files...] [spinfo-files...]

The files may appear in any order; the file type is determined by whether the file name contains .decls, .dtrace, or .spinfo. As a special case, a file name of - means to read data trace information from standard input.

The optional flags are described in the sections that follow. For further ways to control Daikon’s behavior via configuration options, see Configuration options; also see the list of options to the front end such as Chicory (see Chicory options) or Kvasir (see Kvasir options).


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4.1 Options to control Daikon output

--help

Print usage message.

-o inv_file

Output serialized invariants to the specified file; they can later be postprocessed, compared, etc. Default: basename.inv.gz in the current directory, where the first data trace file’s basename starts with basename.dtrace. Default is no serialized output, if no such data trace file was supplied. If a data trace file was supplied, there is currently no way to avoid creating a serialized invariant file.

--no_text_output

Don’t print invariants as text output. This option may be used in conjunction with the -o option.

--format name

Produce output in the given format. For a list of the output formats supported by Daikon, see Invariant syntax.

--show_progress
--no_show_progress

Prints (respectively, suppresses) timing information as major portions of Daikon are executed.

--noversion

Suppress the printing of version information

--output_num_samples

Output numbers of values and samples for invariants and program points; this is a debugging flag. (That is, it helps you understand why Daikon produced the output that it did.)

The ‘Samples breakdown’ output indicates how many samples in the .dtrace file had a modified value (‘m’), had an unmodified value (‘u’), and had a nonsensical value (‘x’). The summary uses a capital letter if the sample had any of the corresponding type of variable, and a lower-case letter if it had none. These types affect statistical tests that determine whether a particular invariant (that was true over all the test runs) is printed.

Only variables that appear in both the pre-state and the post-state (variables that are in scope at both procedure exit and entry) are eligible to be listed as modified or unmodified. This is why the list of all variables is not the union of the modified and unmodified variables.

--files_from filename

Read a list of .decls, .dtrace, or .spinfo files from the given text file, one filename per line, as an alternative to providing them on the command line.

--server dirname

Server mode for Daikon in which it reads files from dirname as they appear (sorted lexicographically) until it finds a file ending in ‘.end’, at which point it calculates and outputs the invariants.

--omit_from_output [0rs]

Omit some potentially redundant information from the serialized output file produced with -o. By default, the serialized output contains all of the data structures produced by Daikon while inferring invariants. Depending on the use to which the serialized output will later be put, the file can sometimes be significantly shortened by omitting information that is no longer needed. The flag should be followed by one or more characters each representing a kind of structures the can be omitted. The following characters are recognized:

0 (zero)

Omit information about program points that were declared, but for which no samples were found in any .dtrace file.

r

Omit reflexive invariants, those in which a variable appears more than once. Usually, such invariants are not interesting, because their meaning is duplicated by invariants with fewer variables: for instance, x = x - x and y = z + z can be expressed as x = 0 and y = 2 * z instead. However, Daikon generates and uses such invariants internally to decide what invariants to create when two previously equal variables turn out to be different.

s

Omit invariants that are suppressed by other invariants. Suppression refers to a particular optimization in which the processing of an invariant is postponed as long as certain other invariants that logically imply it hold.

For most uses of serialized output in the current version, it is safe to use the 0 and r omissions, but the s omission will cause subtle output changes. In many cases, the amount of space saved is modest (typically around 10%), but the savings can be more substantial for programs with many unused program points, or program points with many variables.


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4.2 Options to control invariant detection

--conf_limit val

Set the confidence limit for justifying invariants. If the confidence level for a given invariant is larger than the limit, then Daikon outputs the invariant. This mechanism filters out invariants that are satisfied purely by chance. This is only relevant to invariants that were true in all observed samples; Daikon never outputs invariants that were ever false.

val must be between 0 and 1; the default is .99. Larger values yield stronger filtering.

Each type of invariant has its own rules for determining confidence. See the computeConfidence method in the Java source code for the invariant.

For example, consider the invariant a<b whose confidence computation is 1 - 1/2^numsamples, which indicates the likelihood that the observations of a and b did not occur by chance. If there were 3 samples, and a<b on all of them, then the confidence would be 7/8 = .875. If there were 6 samples, and a<b on only 5 on them, the confidence would be 0. If there were 9 samples, and a<b on all of them, then the confidence would be 1-1/2^9 = .998.

There are two ways to print the confidence of each invariant. You can use Diff (see Invariant Diff):

java daikon.diff.Diff MyFile.inv.gz

or you can use PrintInvariants (see Printing invariants):

java daikon.PrintInvariants --dbg daikon.PrintInvariants.repr \
     MyFile.inv.gz 

To print the confidence of each invariant that is discarded, run Daikon with the --disc_reason all command-line option (see Daikon debugging options).

--list_type classname

Indicate that the given class implements the java.util.List interface. The preferred mechanism for indicating such information is the ListImplementors section of the .decls file. See ListImplementors declaration in Daikon Developer Manual.

--nohierarchy

Avoid connecting program points in a dataflow hierarchy. For example, Daikon normally connects the :::ENTER program points of class methods with the class’s :::CLASS program point, so that any invariant that holds on the :::CLASS program point is considered to hold true on the :::ENTER program point. With no hierarchy, each program point is treated independently. This is for using Daikon on applications that do not have a concept of hierarchy. It can also be useful when you wish to process unmatched enter point samples from a trace file that is missing some exit point samples.

--suppress_redundant

Suppress display of logically redundant invariants, using the Simplify automatic theorem prover. Daikon already suppresses most logically redundant output. For example, if ‘x >= 0’ and ‘x > 0’ are both true, then Daikon outputs only ‘x > 0’. Use of the --suppress_redundant option tells Daikon to use Simplify to eliminate even more redundant output, and should be used if it is important that absolutely no redundancies appear in the output.

Simplify must be separately obtained (from http://www.hpl.hp.com/downloads/crl/jtk/) and installed in order to take advantage of this option. Beware that Simplify can run slowly; the amount of effort Simplify exerts for each invariant can be controlled using the daikon.simplify.Session.simplify_max_iterations and daikon.simplify.Session.simplify_timeout configuration options.


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4.3 Processing only part of the trace file

--ppt-select-pattern=ppt_regexp

Only process program points whose names match the regular expression. The --ppt-omit-pattern argument takes precedence over this argument.

--ppt-omit-pattern=ppt_regexp

Do not process program points whose names match the regular expression. This takes precedence over the --ppt-select-pattern argument.

--var-select-pattern=var_regexp

Only process variables (whether in the trace file or derived) whose names match the regular expression. The --var-omit-pattern argument takes precedence over this argument.

--var-omit-pattern=var_regexp

Ignore variables (whether in the trace file or derived) whose names match the regular expression. This takes priority over the --var-select-pattern argument.

All of the regular expressions used by Daikon use Java’s regular expression syntax, which is similar to Perl’s but not exactly the same. Details are available at http://docs.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/api/java/util/regex/Pattern.html#sum. Multiple items can be matched by using the logical or operator (‘|’), for example var1|var2|var3.

The ...-omit-pattern arguments take precedence: if a name matches an omit pattern, it is excluded. If a name does not match an omit pattern, it is tested against the select pattern (if any). If any select patterns are specified, the name must match one of the patterns in order to be included. If no select patterns are specified, then any ‘ppt’ name that does not match the omit patterns is included.

Using --ppt-select-pattern and --ppt-omit-pattern can save time even if there are no samples for the excluded program points, as Daikon can skip the declarations and need not initialize data structures that would be used if samples were encountered.

Front ends such as Chicory (see Program points in Chicory output) and Kvasir (see Kvasir options), and other tools such as DynComp (see DynComp for Java options) and PrintInvariants (see Printing invariants), also support these command-line options (Kvasir names them slightly differently). Passing the command-line option to the front end means that the target program will run faster and the trace file will be smaller.


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4.4 Daikon configuration options

--config filename

Load the configuration settings specified in the given file. See Configuration options, for details.

--config_option name=value

Specify a single configuration setting. See Configuration options, for details.


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4.5 Daikon debugging options

--dbg category
--debug

These debugging options cause output to be written to a log file (by default, to the terminal); in other words, they enable a Logger. The --dbg category option enables debugging output for a specific part of Daikon; it may be specified multiple times, permitting find-grained control over debugging output. The --debug option turns on all debugging flags. (This produces a lot of output!) Most categories are class or package names in the Daikon implementation, such as daikon.split or daikon.derive.binary.SequencesJoin. Only classes that check the appropriate categories are affected by the debug flags; you can determine this by looking for a call to Logger.getLogger in the specific class.

--track class<var1,var2,var3>@ppt

Turns on debugging information on the specified class, variables, and program point. In contrast to the --dbg option, track logging follows a particular invariant through Daikon. Multiple --track options can be specified. Each item (class, variables, and program point) is optional. Multiple classes can be specified separated by vertical bars (‘|’). Matching is a simple substring (not a regular expression) comparison. Each item must match in order for a printout to occur. For more information, see Track logging in Daikon Developer Manual.

--disc_reason inv_class<var1,var2,...>@ppt

Prints all discarded invariants of class inv_class at the program point specified that involve exactly the variables given, as well as a short reason and discard code explaining why they were not worthy of print. Any of the three parts of the argument may be made a wildcard by excluding it. For example, ‘inv_class’ and ‘<var1,var2,...>@ppt’ are valid arguments. Concrete examples are ‘Implication<x,y>@foo():::EXIT’, ‘Implication<x,y>’, and ‘<x,y>@foo():::EXIT’. To print all discarded invariants, use the argument ‘all’.

--mem_stat

Prints memory usage statistics into a file named stat.out in the current directory.


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5 Daikon output

Daikon outputs the invariants that it discovers in textual form to your terminal. This chapter describes how to interpret those invariants — in other words, what do they mean?

Daikon also creates a .inv file that contains the invariants in serialized (binary) form. You can use the .inv file to print the invariants (see Printing invariants) in a variety of formats, to insert the invariants in your source code (see Annotate), to perform run-time checking of the invariants (see Runtime-check instrumenter, and InvariantChecker), and to do various other operations. See Tools, for descriptions of such tools.

If you wish to write your own tools for processing invariants, you have two general options. You can parse Daikon’s textual output, or you can write Java code that processes the .inv file. The .inv file is simply a serialized PptMap object. In addition to reading the Javadoc, you can examine how the other tools use this data structure.


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5.1 Invariant syntax

Daikon can produce output in a variety of formats. Each of the format names can be specified as an argument to the --format argument of Daikon (see Options to control Daikon output), PrintInvariants (see Printing invariants), and Annotate (see Annotate). When passed on the command line, the format names are case-insensitive: --format JML and --format jml have the same effect.

You can enhance Daikon to produce output in other formats. See New formatting for invariants in Daikon Developer Manual.

Daikon format

Daikon’s default format is a mix of Java, mathematical logic, and some additional extensions. It is intended to concisely convey meaning to programmers.

DBC format

This format produces output in the design-by-contract (DBC) format expected by Parasoft’s Jtest tool (http://www.parasoft.com).

ESC/Java format
ESC format

The Extended Static Checker for Java (ESC/Java) is a programming tool for finding errors in Java programs by checking annotations that are inserted in source code; for more details, see http://www.hpl.hp.com/downloads/crl/jtk/. Daikon’s ESC/Java format (which can also be specified as ESC format) is intended for use with the original ESC/Java tool. Use Daikon’s JML format for use with the ESC/Java2 tool.

Java format

Write output as Java expressions. This means that each invariant would be a valid Java expression, if inserted at the correct program point: right after method entry, for method entry invariants; right before method exit, for method exit invariants;, or anywhere in the code, for object invariants.

There are two exceptions. Method exit invariants that refer to ‘pre-state’, such as ‘x == old(x) + 1’, are output with the tag ‘\old’ surrounding the ‘pre-state’ expression (e.g. ‘x == \old(x) + 1’. Method exit invariants that refer to the return value of the method, such as ‘return == x + y’, are output with the tag ‘\result’ in place of the return value (e.g. ‘\result == x + y’). These expression are obviously not valid Java code.

JML format

Produces output in JVM (Java Modeling Language, http://www.jmlspecs.org); for details, see the JML Manual. JML format lets you use the various JVM tools on Daikon invariants, including runtime assertion checking and the ESC/Java2 tool.

Simplify format

Produces output in the format expected by the Simplify automated theorem prover; for details, see the Simplify distribution.


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5.2 Program points

A program point is a specific place in the source code, such as immediately before a particular line of code. Daikon’s output is organized by program points.

For example, foo():::ENTER is the point at the entry to procedure foo(); the invariants at that point are the preconditions for the foo() method, properties that are always true when the procedure is invoked.

Likewise, foo():::EXIT is the program point at the procedure exit, and invariants there are postconditions. When there are multiple exit points from a procedure (for instance, because of multiple return statements), the different exits are differentiated by suffixing them with their line numbers; for instance, StackAr.top():::EXIT79. The exit point lacking a line number (in this example, StackAr.top():::EXIT) collects the postconditions that are true at every numbered exit point. This is an example of a program point that represents a collection of locations in the program source rather than a single location. This concept is represented in Daikon by the dataflow hierarchy, see Dataflow hierarchy in Daikon Developer Manual.

Two other program point tags that have special meaning to Daikon’s hierarchy organization are :::OBJECT and :::CLASS. The :::OBJECT tag indicates object invariants (sometimes called representation invariants or class invariants) over all the instance (member) fields and static fields of the class. These properties always hold for any object of the given class, from the point of view of a client or user. These properties hold at entry to and exit from every public method of the class (except not the entry to constructors, when fields are not yet initialized).

The :::CLASS tag is just like :::OBJECT, but only for static variables, which have only one value for all objects. Static fields and instance fields are often used for different purposes. Daikon’s separation of the two types of fields permits programmers to see the properties over the static fields without knowing which are the static fields and pick them out of the :::OBJECT program point.

(By contrast, ESC/Java and JML make class invariants hold even at the entry and exit of private methods. Their designers believe that most private methods preserve the class invariant and are called only when the class invariant holds. ESC/Java and JML require an explicit helper annotation to indicate a private method for which the class invariant does not hold.)

The Java instrumenter Chicory selects names for program points that include an indication of the argument and return types for each method. These signatures are presented in the JML format: one character for each primitive type (‘B’ for byte, ‘C’ for character, ‘Z’ for boolean (so as not to clash with byte), etc.); ‘Lclassname;’ for object types; and a ‘[’ prefix for each level of array nesting.


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5.3 Variable names

A front end produces a trace file that associates trace variable names with values. Trace variable names need not be exactly the same as the variables in the program. The trace may contain values that are not held in any program variables; in this case, the front end must make up a name to express that value (see below for examples).

Daikon ignores variable names when inferring invariants; it uses the names only when performing output. (Thus, the only practical restriction on trace names is that the VarInfoName parse method must be able to parse the name.)

By convention, trace variables are similar to program variables and field accesses. For example, w and x.y.z are legal trace variables. (So are ‘a[i]’, and ‘a[0].next’, but these are usually handled as derived variables instead; see below.) As in languages such as Java and C, a period character represents field access and square brackets represent selecting an element of a sequence.

In addition to variables that appear in the trace file, Daikon creates additional variables, called derived variables, by combining trace variables. For example, for any array a and integer i, Daikon creates a derived variable a[i]. This is not a variable in the program (and this expression might not even appear in the source code), but it may still be useful to compute invariants over this expression. For a list of derived variables and how to control Daikon’s use of them, see Options to enable/disable derived variables.

Some trace variables and derived variables may represent meaningless expressions; in such a circumstance, the value is said to be nonsensical (see Nonsensical values in Daikon Developer Manual).

The remainder of this section describes conventions for naming expressions. Those that cannot be named by simple C/Java expressions are primarily related to arrays and sequences. (In part, these special expressions are necessary because Daikon can only handle variables of scalar (integer, floating-point, boolean, String) and array-of-scalar types. Daikon cannot handle structs, classes, or multidimensional arrays or structures, but such data structures can be represented as scalars and arrays by choosing variable names that indicate their relationship.)

Daikon’s current front ends do not produce output for local variables, only for variables visible from outside a procedure. (Also see the --std-visibility option to Chicory, Chicory options.) More generally, Daikon’s front ends produce output at procedure exit and entry, not within the procedure. Thus, Daikon’s output forms a specification from the view of a client of a procedure. If you wish to compute invariants over local variables, you can extend one of Daikon’s front ends (or request us to do so). An alternative that permits computing invariants at arbitrary locations is to call a dummy procedure, passing all the variables of interest. The dummy procedure’s pre and postconditions will be identical and will represent the invariants at the point of call.

The array introduction operator [] can made Daikon variables look slightly odd, but it is intended to assist in interpreting the variables and to provide an indication that the variable name cannot be substituted directly in a program as an expression.

Each array introduction operator [] increases the dimensionality of the variable, and each array indexing operation [i] decreases it. Since all Daikon variables are scalars or one-dimensional arrays, these operators must be matched up, or have at most one more [] than [i]. (There is one exception: according to a strict interpretation of the rules, the C/Java expression a[i] would turn into the Daikon variable a[][i], since it does not change the dimensionality of any expression it appears in. However, that would be even more confusing, and the point is to avoid confusion, so by convention Daikon front ends use just a[i], not a[][i]. Strictly speaking, none of the [] operators is necessary, since a user with a perfect knowledge of the type of each program variable and field could use that to infer the type of any Daikon expression.)


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5.3.1 orig() variable example

This section gives an example of use of orig() and post() variables and arrays.

Suppose you have initially that (in Java syntax)

int i = 0;
int[] a = new int[] { 22, 23 };
int[] b = new int[] { 46, 47 };

and then you run the following:

// pre-state values at this point
a[0] = 24;
a[1] = 25
a = b;
a[0] = 48;
a[1] = 49;
i = 1;
// post-state values at this point

The values of various variables are as follows:

orig(a[i]) = 22

The value of a[i] in the ‘pre-state’: {22, 23}[0]

orig(a[])[orig(i)] = 22

This is the same as orig(a[i]): {22, 23}[0].

orig(a[])[i] = 23

The value of a[] in the ‘pre-state’ (which is an array object, not a reference), indexed by the post-state value of i: {22, 23}[1]

orig(a)[orig(i)] = 24

orig(a) is the original value of the reference a, not a's original elements: {24, 25}[0]

orig(a)[i] = 25

The original pointer value of a, indexed by the post-state value of i: {24, 25}[1]

a[orig(i)] = 48

In the post-state, a indexed by the original value of i: {48, 49}[0]

a[i] = 49

The value of a[i] in the post-state.

b = orig(b) = some hashcode

The identity of the array b has not changed.

b[] = [48, 49]
orig(b[]) = [46, 47]

For an array b, ‘b=orig(b)’ does not imply ‘b[]=orig(b[])’.

orig(a[post(i)]) = 23

The ‘pre-state’ value of a[1] (because the post-state value of i is 1): {22, 23}[1]


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5.4 Interpreting Daikon output

If nothing gets printed before the ‘Exiting’ line, then Daikon found no invariants. You can get a little bit more information by using the --output_num_samples flag to Daikon (see Options to control Daikon output).

Daikon’s output is predicated on the assumption that all expressions that get evaluated are sensible. For instance, if Daikon prints ‘a.b == 0’, then that means that ifa.b’ is sensible (that is, ‘a’ is non-null), then its value is zero. When ‘a’ is ‘null’, then ‘a.b’ is called nonsensical. Daikon’s output ignores all nonsensical values. If you would like the assumptions to be printed explicitly, then set the daikon.Daikon.guardNulls configuration option (see General configuration options).


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5.4.1 Redundant invariants

By default, Daikon does not display redundant invariants — those that are implied by other invariants in the output — because such results would merely clutter the output without adding any valuable information. For instance, if Daikon reports ‘x==y’, then it never also reports ‘x-1==y-1’. You can control this behavior to some extent by disabling invariant filters; see Invariant filters. (You can also print all invariants, even redundant ones, by saving the invariants to a .inv file and then using the PrintInvariants (see Printing invariants) or Diff (see Invariant Diff) programs to print the results.)


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5.4.2 Equal variables

If two variables x and y are equal, then any invariant about x is also true about y. Daikon chooses one variable (the leader) from the set of equal variables, and only prints invariants over the leader.

Suppose that a = b = c. Then Daikon will print a = b and a = c, but not b = c. Furthermore, Daikon might print a > d, but would not print b > d or c > d.

You can control which variables are in an equality set; see Variable comparability in Daikon Developer Manual.


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5.4.3 Has only one value variables

The output ‘var has only one value’ in Daikon’s output means that every time that variable var was encountered, it had the same value. Daikon ordinarily reports the actual value, as in ‘var == 22’. Typically this means that the variable is a hashcode or address — that is, its declared type is ‘hashcode’ (see Variable declarations in Daikon Developer Manual). For example, ‘var == 0x38E8A’ is not very illuminating, but it is still interesting that var was never rebound to a different object.

Note that ‘var has only one value’ is different from saying that var is unmodified.

A variable might have only one value but not be reported as unmodified because the variable is not a parameter to a procedure — for instance, if a routine always returns the same object, or in a class invariant. A variable can be reported as unmodified but not have only one value because the variable is never modified during any execution of the procedure, but has different values on different invocations of the procedure.


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5.5 Invariant list

The following is a list of all of the invariants that Daikon detects. Each invariant has a configuration enable switch. By default most invariants are enabled. Any that are not enabled by default are indicated below. Some invariants also have additional configuration switches that control their behavior. These are indicated below as well. See Options to enable/disable specific invariants.

AndJoiner

This is a special invariant used internally by Daikon to represent an antecedent invariant in an implication where that antecedent consists of two invariants anded together.

CommonFloatSequence

Represents sequences of double values that contain a common subset. Prints as ‘{e1, e2, e3, ...} subset of x[]’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.sequence.CommonFloatSequence.enabled’.

See also the following configuration option:

CommonSequence

Represents sequences of long values that contain a common subset. Prints as ‘{e1, e2, e3, ...} subset of x[]’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.sequence.CommonSequence.enabled’.

See also the following configuration option:

CommonStringSequence

Represents string sequences that contain a common subset. Prints as "{s1, s2, s3, ...} subset of x[]".

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.stringsequence.CommonStringSequence.enabled’.

CompleteOneOfScalar

Tracks every unique value and how many times it occurs.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.scalar.CompleteOneOfScalar.enabled’.

CompleteOneOfString

Tracks every unique value and how many times it occurs.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.string.CompleteOneOfString.enabled’.

DummyInvariant

This is a special invariant used internally by Daikon to represent invariants whose meaning Daikon doesn’t understand. The only operation that can be performed on a DummyInvariant is to print it.

The main use for a dummy invariant is to represent a splitting condition that appears in a .spinfo file. The .spinfo file can indicate an arbitrary Java expression, which might not be equivalent to any invariant in Daikon’s grammar.

Ordinarily, Daikon uses splitting conditions to split data, then seeks to use that split data to form conditional invariants out of its standard built-in invariants. If you wish the expression in the .spinfo file to be printed as an invariant, then the configuration option ‘daikon.split.PptSplitter.dummy_invariant_level’ must be set, and formatting information must be supplied in the splitter info file.

EltLowerBound

Represents the invariant that each element of a sequence of long values is greater than or equal to a constant. Prints as ‘x[] elements >= c’.

See also the following configuration options:

EltLowerBoundFloat

Represents the invariant that each element of a sequence of double values is greater than or equal to a constant. Prints as ‘x[] elements >= c’.

See also the following configuration options:

EltNonZero

Represents the invariant "x != 0" where x represents all of the elements of a sequence of long. Prints as ‘x[] elements != 0’.

EltNonZeroFloat

Represents the invariant "x != 0" where x represents all of the elements of a sequence of double. Prints as ‘x[] elements != 0’.

EltOneOf

Represents sequences of long values where the elements of the sequence take on only a few distinct values. Prints as either ‘x[] == c’ (when there is only one value), or as ‘x[] one of {c1, c2, c3}’ (when there are multiple values).

See also the following configuration options:

EltOneOfFloat

Represents sequences of double values where the elements of the sequence take on only a few distinct values. Prints as either ‘x[] == c’ (when there is only one value), or as ‘x[] one of {c1, c2, c3}’ (when there are multiple values).

See also the following configuration option:

EltOneOfString

Represents sequences of String values where the elements of the sequence take on only a few distinct values. Prints as either ‘x[] == c’ (when there is only one value), or as ‘x[] one of {c1, c2, c3}’ (when there are multiple values).

See also the following configuration option:

EltRangeFloat.EqualMinusOne

Internal invariant representing double scalars that are equal to minus one. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since OneOf accomplishes the same thing

EltRangeFloat.EqualOne

Internal invariant representing double scalars that are equal to one. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since OneOf accomplishes the same thing

EltRangeFloat.EqualZero

Internal invariant representing double scalars that are equal to zero. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since OneOf accomplishes the same thing.

EltRangeFloat.GreaterEqual64

Internal invariant representing double scalars that are greater than or equal to 64. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since Bound accomplishes the same thing

EltRangeFloat.GreaterEqualZero

Internal invariant representing double scalars that are greater than or equal to 0. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since Bound accomplishes the same thing

EltRangeInt.BooleanVal

Internal invariant representing longs whose values are always 0 or 1. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since OneOf accomplishes the same thing.

EltRangeInt.Bound0_63

Internal invariant representing longs whose values are between 0 and 63. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since Bound accomplishes the same thing.

EltRangeInt.EqualMinusOne

Internal invariant representing long scalars that are equal to minus one. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since OneOf accomplishes the same thing

EltRangeInt.EqualOne

Internal invariant representing long scalars that are equal to one. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since OneOf accomplishes the same thing

EltRangeInt.EqualZero

Internal invariant representing long scalars that are equal to zero. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since OneOf accomplishes the same thing.

EltRangeInt.Even

Invariant representing longs whose values are always even. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Since this is not covered by the Bound or OneOf invariants it is printed.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltRangeInt.Even.enabled’.

EltRangeInt.GreaterEqual64

Internal invariant representing long scalars that are greater than or equal to 64. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since Bound accomplishes the same thing

EltRangeInt.GreaterEqualZero

Internal invariant representing long scalars that are greater than or equal to 0. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since Bound accomplishes the same thing

EltRangeInt.PowerOfTwo

Invariant representing longs whose values are always a power of 2 (exactly one bit is set). Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Since this is not covered by the Bound or OneOf invariants it is printed.

EltUpperBound

Represents the invariant that each element of a sequence of long values is less than or equal to a constant. Prints as ‘x[] elements <= c’.

See also the following configuration options:

EltUpperBoundFloat

Represents the invariant that each element of a sequence of double values is less than or equal to a constant. Prints as ‘x[] elements <= c’.

See also the following configuration options:

EltwiseFloatEqual

Represents equality between adjacent elements (x[i], x[i+1]) of a double sequence. Prints as ‘x[] elements are equal’.

EltwiseFloatGreaterEqual

Represents the invariant ">=" between adjacent elements (x[i], x[i+1]) of a double sequence. Prints as ‘x[] sorted by ">="’.

EltwiseFloatGreaterThan

Represents the invariant ">" between adjacent elements (x[i], x[i+1]) of a double sequence. Prints as ‘x[] sorted by ">"’.

EltwiseFloatLessEqual

Represents the invariant "<=" between adjacent elements (x[i], x[i+1]) of a double sequence. Prints as ‘x[] sorted by "<="’.

EltwiseFloatLessThan

Represents the invariant "<" between adjacent elements (x[i], x[i+1]) of a double sequence. Prints as ‘x[] sorted by "<"’.

EltwiseIntEqual

Represents equality between adjacent elements (x[i], x[i+1]) of a long sequence. Prints as ‘x[] elements are equal’.

EltwiseIntGreaterEqual

Represents the invariant ">=" between adjacent elements (x[i], x[i+1]) of a long sequence. Prints as ‘x[] sorted by ">="’.

EltwiseIntGreaterThan

Represents the invariant ">" between adjacent elements (x[i], x[i+1]) of a long sequence. Prints as ‘x[] sorted by ">"’.

EltwiseIntLessEqual

Represents the invariant "<=" between adjacent elements (x[i], x[i+1]) of a long sequence. Prints as ‘x[] sorted by "<="’.

EltwiseIntLessThan

Represents the invariant "<" between adjacent elements (x[i], x[i+1]) of a long sequence. Prints as ‘x[] sorted by "<"’.

Equality

Keeps track of sets of variables that are equal. Other invariants are instantiated for only one member of the Equality set, the leader. If variables ‘x’, ‘y’, and ‘z’ are members of the Equality set and ‘x’ is chosen as the leader, then the Equality will internally convert into binary comparison invariants that print as ‘x == y’ and ‘x == z’.

FloatEqual

Represents an invariant of "==" between two double scalars.

FloatGreaterEqual

Represents an invariant of ">=" between two double scalars.

FloatGreaterThan

Represents an invariant of ">" between two double scalars.

FloatLessEqual

Represents an invariant of "<=" between two double scalars.

FloatLessThan

Represents an invariant of "<" between two double scalars.

FloatNonEqual

Represents an invariant of "!=" between two double scalars.

FunctionBinary.BitwiseAndLong_{xyz, yxz, zxy}

Represents the invariant ‘x = BitwiseAnd (y, z)’ over three long scalars. Since the function is symmetric, only the permutations xyz, yxz, and zxy are checked.

FunctionBinary.BitwiseOrLong_{xyz, yxz, zxy}

Represents the invariant ‘x = BitwiseOr (y, z)’ over three long scalars. Since the function is symmetric, only the permutations xyz, yxz, and zxy are checked.

FunctionBinary.BitwiseXorLong_{xyz, yxz, zxy}

Represents the invariant ‘x = BitwiseXor (y, z)’ over three long scalars. Since the function is symmetric, only the permutations xyz, yxz, and zxy are checked.

FunctionBinary.DivisionLong_{xyz, xzy, yxz, yzx, zxy, zyx}

Represents the invariant ‘x = Division (y, z)’ over three long scalars. Since the function is non-symmetric, all six permutations of the variables are checked.

FunctionBinary.GcdLong_{xyz, yxz, zxy}

Represents the invariant ‘x = Gcd (y, z)’ over three long scalars. Since the function is symmetric, only the permutations xyz, yxz, and zxy are checked.

FunctionBinary.LogicalAndLong_{xyz, yxz, zxy}

Represents the invariant ‘x = LogicalAnd (y, z)’ over three long scalars. For logical operations, Daikon treats 0 as false and all other values as true. Since the function is symmetric, only the permutations xyz, yxz, and zxy are checked.

FunctionBinary.LogicalOrLong_{xyz, yxz, zxy}

Represents the invariant ‘x = LogicalOr (y, z)’ over three long scalars. For logical operations, Daikon treats 0 as false and all other values as true. Since the function is symmetric, only the permutations xyz, yxz, and zxy are checked.

FunctionBinary.LogicalXorLong_{xyz, yxz, zxy}

Represents the invariant ‘x = LogicalXor (y, z)’ over three long scalars. For logical operations, Daikon treats 0 as false and all other values as true. Since the function is symmetric, only the permutations xyz, yxz, and zxy are checked.

FunctionBinary.LshiftLong_{xyz, xzy, yxz, yzx, zxy, zyx}

Represents the invariant ‘x = Lshift (y, z)’ over three long scalars. Since the function is non-symmetric, all six permutations of the variables are checked.

FunctionBinary.MaximumLong_{xyz, yxz, zxy}

Represents the invariant ‘x = Maximum (y, z)’ over three long scalars. Since the function is symmetric, only the permutations xyz, yxz, and zxy are checked.

FunctionBinary.MinimumLong_{xyz, yxz, zxy}

Represents the invariant ‘x = Minimum (y, z)’ over three long scalars. Since the function is symmetric, only the permutations xyz, yxz, and zxy are checked.

FunctionBinary.ModLong_{xyz, xzy, yxz, yzx, zxy, zyx}

Represents the invariant ‘x = Mod (y, z)’ over three long scalars. Since the function is non-symmetric, all six permutations of the variables are checked.

FunctionBinary.MultiplyLong_{xyz, yxz, zxy}

Represents the invariant ‘x = Multiply (y, z)’ over three long scalars. Since the function is symmetric, only the permutations xyz, yxz, and zxy are checked.

FunctionBinary.PowerLong_{xyz, xzy, yxz, yzx, zxy, zyx}

Represents the invariant ‘x = Power (y, z)’ over three long scalars. Since the function is non-symmetric, all six permutations of the variables are checked.

FunctionBinary.RshiftSignedLong_{xyz, xzy, yxz, yzx, zxy, zyx}

Represents the invariant ‘x = RshiftSigned (y, z)’ over three long scalars. Since the function is non-symmetric, all six permutations of the variables are checked.

FunctionBinary.RshiftUnsignedLong_{xyz, xzy, yxz, yzx, zxy, zyx}

Represents the invariant ‘x = RshiftUnsigned (y, z)’ over three long scalars. Since the function is non-symmetric, all six permutations of the variables are checked.

FunctionBinaryFloat.DivisionDouble_{xyz, xzy, yxz, yzx, zxy, zyx}

Represents the invariant ‘x = Division (y, z)’ over three double scalars. Since the function is non-symmetric, all six permutations of the variables are checked.

FunctionBinaryFloat.MaximumDouble_{xyz, yxz, zxy}

Represents the invariant ‘x = Maximum (y, z)’ over three double scalars. Since the function is symmetric, only the permutations xyz, yxz, and zxy are checked.

FunctionBinaryFloat.MinimumDouble_{xyz, yxz, zxy}

Represents the invariant ‘x = Minimum (y, z)’ over three double scalars. Since the function is symmetric, only the permutations xyz, yxz, and zxy are checked.

FunctionBinaryFloat.MultiplyDouble_{xyz, yxz, zxy}

Represents the invariant ‘x = Multiply (y, z)’ over three double scalars. Since the function is symmetric, only the permutations xyz, yxz, and zxy are checked.

GuardingImplication

This is a special implication invariant that guards any invariants that are over variables that are sometimes missing. For example, if the invariant ‘a.x = 0’ is true, the guarded implication is ‘a != null => a.x = 0’.

Implication

The Implication invariant class is used internally within Daikon to handle invariants that are only true when certain other conditions are also true (splitting).

IntEqual

Represents an invariant of "==" between two long scalars.

IntGreaterEqual

Represents an invariant of ">=" between two long scalars.

IntGreaterThan

Represents an invariant of ">" between two long scalars.

IntLessEqual

Represents an invariant of "<=" between two long scalars.

IntLessThan

Represents an invariant of "<" between two long scalars.

IntNonEqual

Represents an invariant of "!=" between two long scalars.

See also the following configuration option:

IsPointer

IsPointer is an invariant that heuristically determines whether an integer represents a pointer (a 32-bit memory address). Since both a 32-bit integer and an address have the same representation, sometimes a a pointer can be mistaken for an integer. When this happens, several scalar invariants are computed for integer variables. Most of them would not make any sense for pointers. Determining whether a 32-bit variable is a pointer can thus spare the computation of many irrelevant invariants.

The basic approach is to discard the invariant if any values that are not valid pointers are encountered. By default values between -100,000 and 100,00 (except 0) are considered to be invalid pointers. This approach has been experimentally confirmed on Windows x86 executables.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.scalar.IsPointer.enabled’.

LinearBinary

Represents a Linear invariant between two long scalars ‘x’ and ‘y’, of the form ‘ax + by + c = 0’. The constants ‘a’, ‘b’ and ‘c’ are mutually relatively prime, and the constant ‘a’ is always positive.

LinearBinaryFloat

Represents a Linear invariant between two double scalars ‘x’ and ‘y’, of the form ‘ax + by + c = 0’. The constants ‘a’, ‘b’ and ‘c’ are mutually relatively prime, and the constant ‘a’ is always positive.

LinearTernary

Represents a Linear invariant over three long scalars ‘x’, ‘y’, and ‘z’, of the form ‘ax + by + cz + d = 0’. The constants ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’, and ‘d’ are mutually relatively prime, and the constant ‘a’ is always positive.

LinearTernaryFloat

Represents a Linear invariant over three double scalars ‘x’, ‘y’, and ‘z’, of the form ‘ax + by + cz + d = 0’. The constants ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’, and ‘d’ are mutually relatively prime, and the constant ‘a’ is always positive.

LowerBound

Represents the invariant ‘x >= c’, where ‘c’ is a constant and ‘x’ is a long scalar.

See also the following configuration options:

LowerBoundFloat

Represents the invariant ‘x >= c’, where ‘c’ is a constant and ‘x’ is a double scalar.

See also the following configuration options:

Member

Represents long scalars that are always members of a sequence of long values. Prints as ‘x in y[]’ where ‘x’ is a long scalar and ‘y[]’ is a sequence of long.

MemberFloat

Represents double scalars that are always members of a sequence of double values. Prints as ‘x in y[]’ where ‘x’ is a double scalar and ‘y[]’ is a sequence of double.

MemberString

Represents String scalars that are always members of a sequence of String values. Prints as ‘x in y[]’ where ‘x’ is a String scalar and ‘y[]’ is a sequence of String.

Modulus

Represents the invariant ‘x == r (mod m)’ where ‘x’ is a long scalar variable, ‘r’ is the (constant) remainder, and ‘m’ is the (constant) modulus.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.scalar.Modulus.enabled’.

NoDuplicates

Represents sequences of long that contain no duplicate elements. Prints as ‘x[] contains no duplicates’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.sequence.NoDuplicates.enabled’.

NoDuplicatesFloat

Represents sequences of double that contain no duplicate elements. Prints as ‘x[] contains no duplicates’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.sequence.NoDuplicatesFloat.enabled’.

NonModulus

Represents long scalars that are never equal to r (mod m) where all other numbers in the same range (i.e., all the values that x doesn’t take from min(x) to max(x)) are equal to r (mod m). Prints as ‘x != r (mod m)’, where ‘r’ is the remainder and ‘m’ is the modulus.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.scalar.NonModulus.enabled’.

NonZero

Represents long scalars that are non-zero. Prints as ‘x != 0’, or as ‘x != null’ for pointer types.

NonZeroFloat

Represents double scalars that are non-zero. Prints as ‘x != 0’.

NumericFloat.Divides

Represents the divides without remainder invariant between two double scalars. Prints as ‘x % y == 0’.

NumericFloat.Square

Represents the square invariant between two double scalars. Prints as ‘x = y**2’.

NumericFloat.ZeroTrack

Represents the zero tracks invariant between two double scalars; that is, when ‘x’ is zero, ‘y’ is also zero. Prints as ‘x = 0 ==> y = 0’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.NumericFloat.ZeroTrack.enabled’.

NumericInt.BitwiseAndZero

Represents the BitwiseAnd == 0 invariant between two long scalars; that is, ‘x’ and ‘y’ have no bits in common. Prints as ‘x & y == 0’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.NumericInt.BitwiseAndZero.enabled’.

NumericInt.BitwiseComplement

Represents the bitwise complement invariant between two long scalars. Prints as ‘x = ~y’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.NumericInt.BitwiseComplement.enabled’.

NumericInt.BitwiseSubset

Represents the bitwise subset invariant between two long scalars; that is, the bits of ‘y’ are a subset of the bits of ‘x’. Prints as ‘x = y | x’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.NumericInt.BitwiseSubset.enabled’.

NumericInt.Divides

Represents the divides without remainder invariant between two long scalars. Prints as ‘x % y == 0’.

NumericInt.ShiftZero

Represents the ShiftZero invariant between two long scalars; that is, ‘x’ right-shifted by ‘y’ is always zero. Prints as ‘x >> y = 0’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.NumericInt.ShiftZero.enabled’.

NumericInt.Square

Represents the square invariant between two long scalars. Prints as ‘x = y**2’.

NumericInt.ZeroTrack

Represents the zero tracks invariant between two long scalars; that is, when ‘x’ is zero, ‘y’ is also zero. Prints as ‘x = 0 ==> y = 0’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.NumericInt.ZeroTrack.enabled’.

OneOfFloat

Represents double variables that take on only a few distinct values. Prints as either ‘x == c’ (when there is only one value) or as ‘x one of {c1, c2, c3}’ (when there are multiple values).

See also the following configuration option:

OneOfFloatSequence

Represents double[] variables that take on only a few distinct values. Prints as either ‘x == c’ (when there is only one value) or as ‘x one of {c1, c2, c3}’ (when there are multiple values).

See also the following configuration option:

OneOfScalar

Represents long scalars that take on only a few distinct values. Prints as either ‘x == c’ (when there is only one value), ‘x one of {c1, c2, c3}’ (when there are multiple values), or ‘x has only one value’ (when ‘x’ is a hashcode (pointer) - this is because the numerical value of the hashcode (pointer) is uninteresting).

See also the following configuration options:

OneOfSequence

Represents long[] variables that take on only a few distinct values. Prints as either ‘x == c’ (when there is only one value) or as ‘x one of {c1, c2, c3}’ (when there are multiple values).

See also the following configuration options:

OneOfString

Represents String variables that take on only a few distinct values. Prints as either ‘x == c’ (when there is only one value) or as ‘x one of {c1, c2, c3}’ (when there are multiple values).

See also the following configuration option:

OneOfStringSequence

Represents String[] variables that take on only a few distinct values. Prints as either ‘x == c’ (when there is only one value) or as ‘x one of {c1, c2, c3}’ (when there are multiple values).

See also the following configuration option:

PairwiseFloatEqual

Represents an invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of double values. The length of the sequences must match for the invariant to hold. A comparison is made over each ‘(x[i], y[i])’ pair. Thus, ‘x[0]’ is compared to ‘y[0]’, ‘x[1]’ to ‘y[1]’, and so forth. Prints as ‘x[] == y[]’.

PairwiseFloatGreaterEqual

Represents an invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of double values. The length of the sequences must match for the invariant to hold. A comparison is made over each ‘(x[i], y[i])’ pair. Thus, ‘x[0]’ is compared to ‘y[0]’, ‘x[1]’ to ‘y[1]’, and so forth. Prints as ‘x[] >= y[]’.

PairwiseFloatGreaterThan

Represents an invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of double values. The length of the sequences must match for the invariant to hold. A comparison is made over each ‘(x[i], y[i])’ pair. Thus, ‘x[0]’ is compared to ‘y[0]’, ‘x[1]’ to ‘y[1]’, and so forth. Prints as ‘x[] > y[]’.

PairwiseFloatLessEqual

Represents an invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of double values. The length of the sequences must match for the invariant to hold. A comparison is made over each ‘(x[i], y[i])’ pair. Thus, ‘x[0]’ is compared to ‘y[0]’, ‘x[1]’ to ‘y[1]’, and so forth. Prints as ‘x[] <= y[]’.

PairwiseFloatLessThan

Represents an invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of double values. The length of the sequences must match for the invariant to hold. A comparison is made over each ‘(x[i], y[i])’ pair. Thus, ‘x[0]’ is compared to ‘y[0]’, ‘x[1]’ to ‘y[1]’, and so forth. Prints as ‘x[] < y[]’.

PairwiseIntEqual

Represents an invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of long values. The length of the sequences must match for the invariant to hold. A comparison is made over each ‘(x[i], y[i])’ pair. Thus, ‘x[0]’ is compared to ‘y[0]’, ‘x[1]’ to ‘y[1]’, and so forth. Prints as ‘x[] == y[]’.

PairwiseIntGreaterEqual

Represents an invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of long values. The length of the sequences must match for the invariant to hold. A comparison is made over each ‘(x[i], y[i])’ pair. Thus, ‘x[0]’ is compared to ‘y[0]’, ‘x[1]’ to ‘y[1]’, and so forth. Prints as ‘x[] >= y[]’.

PairwiseIntGreaterThan

Represents an invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of long values. The length of the sequences must match for the invariant to hold. A comparison is made over each ‘(x[i], y[i])’ pair. Thus, ‘x[0]’ is compared to ‘y[0]’, ‘x[1]’ to ‘y[1]’, and so forth. Prints as ‘x[] > y[]’.

PairwiseIntLessEqual

Represents an invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of long values. The length of the sequences must match for the invariant to hold. A comparison is made over each ‘(x[i], y[i])’ pair. Thus, ‘x[0]’ is compared to ‘y[0]’, ‘x[1]’ to ‘y[1]’, and so forth. Prints as ‘x[] <= y[]’.

PairwiseIntLessThan

Represents an invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of long values. The length of the sequences must match for the invariant to hold. A comparison is made over each ‘(x[i], y[i])’ pair. Thus, ‘x[0]’ is compared to ‘y[0]’, ‘x[1]’ to ‘y[1]’, and so forth. Prints as ‘x[] < y[]’.

PairwiseLinearBinary

Represents a linear invariant (i.e., ‘y = ax + b’) between the corresponding elements of two sequences of long values. Each ‘(x[i], y[i])’ pair is examined. Thus, ‘x[0]’ is compared to ‘y[0]’, ‘x[1]’ to ‘y[1]’ and so forth. Prints as ‘y[] = a * x[] + b’.

PairwiseLinearBinaryFloat

Represents a linear invariant (i.e., ‘y = ax + b’) between the corresponding elements of two sequences of double values. Each ‘(x[i], y[i])’ pair is examined. Thus, ‘x[0]’ is compared to ‘y[0]’, ‘x[1]’ to ‘y[1]’ and so forth. Prints as ‘y[] = a * x[] + b’.

PairwiseNumericFloat.Divides

Represents the divides without remainder invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of double. Prints as ‘x[] % y[] == 0’.

PairwiseNumericFloat.Square

Represents the square invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of double. Prints as ‘x[] = y[]**2’.

PairwiseNumericFloat.ZeroTrack

Represents the zero tracks invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of double; that is, when ‘x[]’ is zero, ‘y[]’ is also zero. Prints as ‘x[] = 0 ==> y[] = 0’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseNumericFloat.ZeroTrack.enabled’.

PairwiseNumericInt.BitwiseAndZero

Represents the BitwiseAnd == 0 invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of long; that is, ‘x[]’ and ‘y[]’ have no bits in common. Prints as ‘x[] & y[] == 0’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseNumericInt.BitwiseAndZero.enabled’.

PairwiseNumericInt.BitwiseComplement

Represents the bitwise complement invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of long. Prints as ‘x[] = ~y[]’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseNumericInt.BitwiseComplement.enabled’.

PairwiseNumericInt.BitwiseSubset

Represents the bitwise subset invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of long; that is, the bits of ‘y[]’ are a subset of the bits of ‘x[]’. Prints as ‘x[] = y[] | x[]’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseNumericInt.BitwiseSubset.enabled’.

PairwiseNumericInt.Divides

Represents the divides without remainder invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of long. Prints as ‘x[] % y[] == 0’.

PairwiseNumericInt.ShiftZero

Represents the ShiftZero invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of long; that is, ‘x[]’ right-shifted by ‘y[]’ is always zero. Prints as ‘x[] >> y[] = 0’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseNumericInt.ShiftZero.enabled’.

PairwiseNumericInt.Square

Represents the square invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of long. Prints as ‘x[] = y[]**2’.

PairwiseNumericInt.ZeroTrack

Represents the zero tracks invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of long; that is, when ‘x[]’ is zero, ‘y[]’ is also zero. Prints as ‘x[] = 0 ==> y[] = 0’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseNumericInt.ZeroTrack.enabled’.

PairwiseString.SubString

Represents the substring invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of String. Prints as ‘x[] is a substring of y[]’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseString.SubString.enabled’.

PairwiseStringEqual

Represents an invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of String values. The length of the sequences must match for the invariant to hold. A comparison is made over each ‘(x[i], y[i])’ pair. Thus, ‘x[0]’ is compared to ‘y[0]’, ‘x[1]’ to ‘y[1]’, and so forth. Prints as ‘x[] == y[]’.

PairwiseStringGreaterEqual

Represents an invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of String values. The length of the sequences must match for the invariant to hold. A comparison is made over each ‘(x[i], y[i])’ pair. Thus, ‘x[0]’ is compared to ‘y[0]’, ‘x[1]’ to ‘y[1]’, and so forth. Prints as ‘x[] >= y[]’.

PairwiseStringGreaterThan

Represents an invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of String values. The length of the sequences must match for the invariant to hold. A comparison is made over each ‘(x[i], y[i])’ pair. Thus, ‘x[0]’ is compared to ‘y[0]’, ‘x[1]’ to ‘y[1]’, and so forth. Prints as ‘x[] > y[]’.

PairwiseStringLessEqual

Represents an invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of String values. The length of the sequences must match for the invariant to hold. A comparison is made over each ‘(x[i], y[i])’ pair. Thus, ‘x[0]’ is compared to ‘y[0]’, ‘x[1]’ to ‘y[1]’, and so forth. Prints as ‘x[] <= y[]’.

PairwiseStringLessThan

Represents an invariant between corresponding elements of two sequences of String values. The length of the sequences must match for the invariant to hold. A comparison is made over each ‘(x[i], y[i])’ pair. Thus, ‘x[0]’ is compared to ‘y[0]’, ‘x[1]’ to ‘y[1]’, and so forth. Prints as ‘x[] < y[]’.

Positive

Represents the invariant ‘x &gt; 0’ where ‘x’ is a long scalar. This exists only as an example for the purposes of the manual. It isn’t actually used (it is replaced by the more general invariant LowerBound).

PrintableString

Represents a string that contains only printable ascii characters (values 32 through 126 plus 9 (tab)

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.string.PrintableString.enabled’.

RangeFloat.EqualMinusOne

Internal invariant representing double scalars that are equal to minus one. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since OneOf accomplishes the same thing

RangeFloat.EqualOne

Internal invariant representing double scalars that are equal to one. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since OneOf accomplishes the same thing

RangeFloat.EqualZero

Internal invariant representing double scalars that are equal to zero. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since OneOf accomplishes the same thing.

RangeFloat.GreaterEqual64

Internal invariant representing double scalars that are greater than or equal to 64. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since Bound accomplishes the same thing

RangeFloat.GreaterEqualZero

Internal invariant representing double scalars that are greater than or equal to 0. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since Bound accomplishes the same thing

RangeInt.BooleanVal

Internal invariant representing longs whose values are always 0 or 1. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since OneOf accomplishes the same thing.

RangeInt.Bound0_63

Internal invariant representing longs whose values are between 0 and 63. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since Bound accomplishes the same thing.

RangeInt.EqualMinusOne

Internal invariant representing long scalars that are equal to minus one. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since OneOf accomplishes the same thing

RangeInt.EqualOne

Internal invariant representing long scalars that are equal to one. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since OneOf accomplishes the same thing

RangeInt.EqualZero

Internal invariant representing long scalars that are equal to zero. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since OneOf accomplishes the same thing.

RangeInt.Even

Invariant representing longs whose values are always even. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Since this is not covered by the Bound or OneOf invariants it is printed.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.scalar.RangeInt.Even.enabled’.

RangeInt.GreaterEqual64

Internal invariant representing long scalars that are greater than or equal to 64. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since Bound accomplishes the same thing

RangeInt.GreaterEqualZero

Internal invariant representing long scalars that are greater than or equal to 0. Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Will never print since Bound accomplishes the same thing

RangeInt.PowerOfTwo

Invariant representing longs whose values are always a power of 2 (exactly one bit is set). Used for non-instantiating suppressions. Since this is not covered by the Bound or OneOf invariants it is printed.

Reverse

Represents two sequences of long where one is in the reverse order of the other. Prints as ‘x[] is the reverse of y[]’.

ReverseFloat

Represents two sequences of double where one is in the reverse order of the other. Prints as ‘x[] is the reverse of y[]’.

SeqFloatEqual

Represents an invariant between a double scalar and a a sequence of double values. Prints as ‘x[] elements == y’ where ‘x’ is a double sequence and ‘y’ is a double scalar.

SeqFloatGreaterEqual

Represents an invariant between a double scalar and a a sequence of double values. Prints as ‘x[] elements >= y’ where ‘x’ is a double sequence and ‘y’ is a double scalar.

SeqFloatGreaterThan

Represents an invariant between a double scalar and a a sequence of double values. Prints as ‘x[] elements > y’ where ‘x’ is a double sequence and ‘y’ is a double scalar.

SeqFloatLessEqual

Represents an invariant between a double scalar and a a sequence of double values. Prints as ‘x[] elements <= y’ where ‘x’ is a double sequence and ‘y’ is a double scalar.

SeqFloatLessThan

Represents an invariant between a double scalar and a a sequence of double values. Prints as ‘x[] elements < y’ where ‘x’ is a double sequence and ‘y’ is a double scalar.

SeqIndexFloatEqual

Represents an invariant over sequences of double values between the index of an element of the sequence and the element itself. Prints as ‘x[i] == i’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexFloatEqual.enabled’.

SeqIndexFloatGreaterEqual

Represents an invariant over sequences of double values between the index of an element of the sequence and the element itself. Prints as ‘x[i] >= i’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexFloatGreaterEqual.enabled’.

SeqIndexFloatGreaterThan

Represents an invariant over sequences of double values between the index of an element of the sequence and the element itself. Prints as ‘x[i] > i’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexFloatGreaterThan.enabled’.

SeqIndexFloatLessEqual

Represents an invariant over sequences of double values between the index of an element of the sequence and the element itself. Prints as ‘x[i] <= i’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexFloatLessEqual.enabled’.

SeqIndexFloatLessThan

Represents an invariant over sequences of double values between the index of an element of the sequence and the element itself. Prints as ‘x[i] < i’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexFloatLessThan.enabled’.

SeqIndexFloatNonEqual

Represents an invariant over sequences of double values between the index of an element of the sequence and the element itself. Prints as ‘x[i] != i’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexFloatNonEqual.enabled’.

SeqIndexIntEqual

Represents an invariant over sequences of long values between the index of an element of the sequence and the element itself. Prints as ‘x[i] == i’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexIntEqual.enabled’.

SeqIndexIntGreaterEqual

Represents an invariant over sequences of long values between the index of an element of the sequence and the element itself. Prints as ‘x[i] >= i’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexIntGreaterEqual.enabled’.

SeqIndexIntGreaterThan

Represents an invariant over sequences of long values between the index of an element of the sequence and the element itself. Prints as ‘x[i] > i’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexIntGreaterThan.enabled’.

SeqIndexIntLessEqual

Represents an invariant over sequences of long values between the index of an element of the sequence and the element itself. Prints as ‘x[i] <= i’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexIntLessEqual.enabled’.

SeqIndexIntLessThan

Represents an invariant over sequences of long values between the index of an element of the sequence and the element itself. Prints as ‘x[i] < i’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexIntLessThan.enabled’.

SeqIndexIntNonEqual

Represents an invariant over sequences of long values between the index of an element of the sequence and the element itself. Prints as ‘x[i] != i’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexIntNonEqual.enabled’.

SeqIntEqual

Represents an invariant between a long scalar and a a sequence of long values. Prints as ‘x[] elements == y’ where ‘x’ is a long sequence and ‘y’ is a long scalar.

SeqIntGreaterEqual

Represents an invariant between a long scalar and a a sequence of long values. Prints as ‘x[] elements >= y’ where ‘x’ is a long sequence and ‘y’ is a long scalar.

SeqIntGreaterThan

Represents an invariant between a long scalar and a a sequence of long values. Prints as ‘x[] elements > y’ where ‘x’ is a long sequence and ‘y’ is a long scalar.

SeqIntLessEqual

Represents an invariant between a long scalar and a a sequence of long values. Prints as ‘x[] elements <= y’ where ‘x’ is a long sequence and ‘y’ is a long scalar.

SeqIntLessThan

Represents an invariant between a long scalar and a a sequence of long values. Prints as ‘x[] elements < y’ where ‘x’ is a long sequence and ‘y’ is a long scalar.

SeqSeqFloatEqual

Represents invariants between two sequences of double values. If order matters for each variable (which it does by default), then the sequences are compared lexically. Prints as ‘x[] == y[] lexically’.

If order doesn’t matter for each variable, then the sequences are compared to see if they are set equivalent. Prints as ‘x[] == y[]’.

If the auxiliary information (e.g., order matters) doesn’t match between two variables, then this invariant cannot apply to those variables.

SeqSeqFloatGreaterEqual

Represents invariants between two sequences of double values. If order matters for each variable (which it does by default), then the sequences are compared lexically. Prints as ‘x[] >= y[] lexically’.

If the auxiliary information (e.g., order matters) doesn’t match between two variables, then this invariant cannot apply to those variables.

SeqSeqFloatGreaterThan

Represents invariants between two sequences of double values. If order matters for each variable (which it does by default), then the sequences are compared lexically. Prints as ‘x[] > y[] lexically’.

If the auxiliary information (e.g., order matters) doesn’t match between two variables, then this invariant cannot apply to those variables.

SeqSeqFloatLessEqual

Represents invariants between two sequences of double values. If order matters for each variable (which it does by default), then the sequences are compared lexically. Prints as ‘x[] <= y[] lexically’.

If the auxiliary information (e.g., order matters) doesn’t match between two variables, then this invariant cannot apply to those variables.

SeqSeqFloatLessThan

Represents invariants between two sequences of double values. If order matters for each variable (which it does by default), then the sequences are compared lexically. Prints as ‘x[] < y[] lexically’.

If the auxiliary information (e.g., order matters) doesn’t match between two variables, then this invariant cannot apply to those variables.

SeqSeqIntEqual

Represents invariants between two sequences of long values. If order matters for each variable (which it does by default), then the sequences are compared lexically. Prints as ‘x[] == y[] lexically’.

If order doesn’t matter for each variable, then the sequences are compared to see if they are set equivalent. Prints as ‘x[] == y[]’.

If the auxiliary information (e.g., order matters) doesn’t match between two variables, then this invariant cannot apply to those variables.

SeqSeqIntGreaterEqual

Represents invariants between two sequences of long values. If order matters for each variable (which it does by default), then the sequences are compared lexically. Prints as ‘x[] >= y[] lexically’.

If the auxiliary information (e.g., order matters) doesn’t match between two variables, then this invariant cannot apply to those variables.

SeqSeqIntGreaterThan

Represents invariants between two sequences of long values. If order matters for each variable (which it does by default), then the sequences are compared lexically. Prints as ‘x[] > y[] lexically’.

If the auxiliary information (e.g., order matters) doesn’t match between two variables, then this invariant cannot apply to those variables.

SeqSeqIntLessEqual

Represents invariants between two sequences of long values. If order matters for each variable (which it does by default), then the sequences are compared lexically. Prints as ‘x[] <= y[] lexically’.

If the auxiliary information (e.g., order matters) doesn’t match between two variables, then this invariant cannot apply to those variables.

SeqSeqIntLessThan

Represents invariants between two sequences of long values. If order matters for each variable (which it does by default), then the sequences are compared lexically. Prints as ‘x[] < y[] lexically’.

If the auxiliary information (e.g., order matters) doesn’t match between two variables, then this invariant cannot apply to those variables.

SeqSeqStringEqual

Represents invariants between two sequences of String values. If order matters for each variable (which it does by default), then the sequences are compared lexically. Prints as ‘x[] == y[] lexically’.

If order doesn’t matter for each variable, then the sequences are compared to see if they are set equivalent. Prints as ‘x[] == y[]’.

If the auxiliary information (e.g., order matters) doesn’t match between two variables, then this invariant cannot apply to those variables.

SeqSeqStringGreaterEqual

Represents invariants between two sequences of String values. If order matters for each variable (which it does by default), then the sequences are compared lexically. Prints as ‘x[] >= y[] lexically’.

If the auxiliary information (e.g., order matters) doesn’t match between two variables, then this invariant cannot apply to those variables.

SeqSeqStringGreaterThan

Represents invariants between two sequences of String values. If order matters for each variable (which it does by default), then the sequences are compared lexically. Prints as ‘x[] > y[] lexically’.

If the auxiliary information (e.g., order matters) doesn’t match between two variables, then this invariant cannot apply to those variables.

SeqSeqStringLessEqual

Represents invariants between two sequences of String values. If order matters for each variable (which it does by default), then the sequences are compared lexically. Prints as ‘x[] <= y[] lexically’.

If the auxiliary information (e.g., order matters) doesn’t match between two variables, then this invariant cannot apply to those variables.

SeqSeqStringLessThan

Represents invariants between two sequences of String values. If order matters for each variable (which it does by default), then the sequences are compared lexically. Prints as ‘x[] < y[] lexically’.

If the auxiliary information (e.g., order matters) doesn’t match between two variables, then this invariant cannot apply to those variables.

StdString.SubString

Represents the substring invariant between two String scalars. Prints as ‘x is a substring of y’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.binary.twoString.StdString.SubString.enabled’.

StringEqual

Represents an invariant of "==" between two String scalars.

StringGreaterEqual

Represents an invariant of ">=" between two String scalars.

StringGreaterThan

Represents an invariant of ">" between two String scalars.

StringLessEqual

Represents an invariant of "<=" between two String scalars.

StringLessThan

Represents an invariant of "<" between two String scalars.

StringNonEqual

Represents an invariant of "!=" between two String scalars.

SubSequence

Represents two sequences of long values where one sequence is a subsequence of the other. Prints as ‘x[] is a subsequence of y[]’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SubSequence.enabled’.

SubSequenceFloat

Represents two sequences of double values where one sequence is a subsequence of the other. Prints as ‘x[] is a subsequence of y[]’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SubSequenceFloat.enabled’.

SubSet

Represents two sequences of long values where one of the sequences is a subset of the other; that is each element of one sequence appears in the other. Prints as either ‘x[] is a subset of y[]’ or as ‘x[] is a superset of y[]’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SubSet.enabled’.

SubSetFloat

Represents two sequences of double values where one of the sequences is a subset of the other; that is each element of one sequence appears in the other. Prints as either ‘x[] is a subset of y[]’ or as ‘x[] is a superset of y[]’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SubSetFloat.enabled’.

SuperSequence

Represents two sequences of long values where one sequence is a subsequence of the other. Prints as ‘x[] is a subsequence of y[]’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SuperSequence.enabled’.

SuperSequenceFloat

Represents two sequences of double values where one sequence is a subsequence of the other. Prints as ‘x[] is a subsequence of y[]’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SuperSequenceFloat.enabled’.

SuperSet

Represents two sequences of long values where one of the sequences is a subset of the other; that is each element of one sequence appears in the other. Prints as either ‘x[] is a subset of y[]’ or as ‘x[] is a superset of y[]’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SuperSet.enabled’.

SuperSetFloat

Represents two sequences of double values where one of the sequences is a subset of the other; that is each element of one sequence appears in the other. Prints as either ‘x[] is a subset of y[]’ or as ‘x[] is a superset of y[]’.

This invariant is not enabled by default. See the configuration option ‘daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SuperSetFloat.enabled’.

UpperBound

Represents the invariant ‘x <= c’, where ‘c’ is a constant and ‘x’ is a long scalar.

See also the following configuration options:

UpperBoundFloat

Represents the invariant ‘x <= c’, where ‘c’ is a constant and ‘x’ is a double scalar.

See also the following configuration options:


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5.6 Invariant filters

Invariant filters are used to suppress the printing of invariants that are true, but not considered “interesting” — usually because the invariants are considered obvious or redundant in a given context.

The following is a list of the invariant filters that Daikon supports. Each of these filters has a corresponding configuration enable switch; by default, all filters are enabled. See Options to enable/disable filters, for details.


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6 Enhancing Daikon output


Next: , Up: Enhancing Daikon output   [Contents][Index]

6.1 Configuration options

Many aspects of Daikon’s behavior can be controlled by setting various configuration parameters. These configuration parameters control which invariants are checked and reported, the statistical tests for invariants, which derived variables are created, and more.

The configuration options are set by creating a configuration file and supplying it to Daikon on the command line using the --config filename option. Daikon reads all supplied configuration files in order, overriding the defaults. You may wish to use the supplied example configuration file daikon/java/daikon/config/example-settings.txt as an example when creating your own configuration files. (If you did not download Daikon’s sources, you must extract the example from daikon.jar to read it.)

You can also control Daikon’s output via its command-line options (see Running Daikon) and via the command-line options to its front ends such as Chicory (see Chicory options) or Kvasir (see Kvasir options).

You may also specify a configuration setting directly on the command line, using the --config_option name=value option.

The configuration options are different from the debugging flags --debug and --dbg category (see Daikon debugging options). The debugging flags permit Daikon to produce debugging output, but they do not affect the invariants that Daikon computes.


Up: Configuration options   [Contents][Index]

6.1.1 List of configuration options

This is a list of all Daikon configuration options. The configuration option name contains the Java class in which it is defined. (In the Daikon source code, the configuration value is stored in a variable whose name contains a dkconfig_ prefix, but that should be irrelevant to users.) To learn more about a specific invariant or derived variable than appears in this manual, see its source code.


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6.1.1.1 Options to enable/disable filters

These configuration options enable or disable filters that suppress printing of certain invariants. Invariants are filtered if they are found to be true but are considered uninteresting or redundant. See Invariant filters, for more information.

daikon.inv.filter.DerivedParameterFilter.enabled

Boolean. If true, DerivedParameterFilter is initially turned on. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.filter.ObviousFilter.enabled

Boolean. If true, ObviousFilter is initially turned on. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.filter.OnlyConstantVariablesFilter.enabled

Boolean. If true, OnlyConstantVariablesFilter is initially turned on. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.filter.ParentFilter.enabled

Boolean. If true, ParentFilter is initially turned on. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.filter.SimplifyFilter.enabled

Boolean. If true, SimplifyFilter is initially turned on. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.filter.UnjustifiedFilter.enabled

Boolean. If true, UnjustifiedFilter is initially turned on. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.filter.UnmodifiedVariableEqualityFilter.enabled

Boolean. If true, UnmodifiedVariableEqualityFilter is initially turned on. The default value is ‘true’.


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6.1.1.2 Options to enable/disable specific invariants

These options control whether Daikon looks for specific kinds of invariants. See Invariant list, for more information about the corresponding invariants.

daikon.inv.binary.sequenceScalar.Member.enabled

Boolean. True iff Member invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.sequenceScalar.MemberFloat.enabled

Boolean. True iff Member invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.sequenceScalar.SeqFloatEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqFloatEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.sequenceScalar.SeqFloatGreaterEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqFloatGreaterEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.sequenceScalar.SeqFloatGreaterThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqFloatGreaterThan invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.sequenceScalar.SeqFloatLessEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqFloatLessEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.sequenceScalar.SeqFloatLessThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqFloatLessThan invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.sequenceScalar.SeqIntEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqIntEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.sequenceScalar.SeqIntGreaterEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqIntGreaterEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.sequenceScalar.SeqIntGreaterThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqIntGreaterThan invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.sequenceScalar.SeqIntLessEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqIntLessEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.sequenceScalar.SeqIntLessThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqIntLessThan invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.sequenceString.MemberString.enabled

Boolean. True iff Member invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.FloatEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff FloatEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.FloatGreaterEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff FloatGreaterEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.FloatGreaterThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff FloatGreaterThan invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.FloatLessEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff FloatLessEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.FloatLessThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff FloatLessThan invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.FloatNonEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff FloatNonEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.IntEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff IntEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.IntGreaterEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff IntGreaterEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.IntGreaterThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff IntGreaterThan invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.IntLessEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff IntLessEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.IntLessThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff IntLessThan invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.IntNonEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff IntNonEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.LinearBinary.enabled

Boolean. True iff LinearBinary invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.LinearBinaryFloat.enabled

Boolean. True iff LinearBinary invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.NumericFloat.Divides.enabled

Boolean. True iff divides invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.NumericFloat.Square.enabled

Boolean. True iff square invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.NumericFloat.ZeroTrack.enabled

Boolean. True iff zero-track invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.NumericInt.BitwiseAndZero.enabled

Boolean. True iff BitwiseAndZero invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.NumericInt.BitwiseComplement.enabled

Boolean. True iff bitwise complement invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.NumericInt.BitwiseSubset.enabled

Boolean. True iff bitwise subset invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.NumericInt.Divides.enabled

Boolean. True iff divides invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.NumericInt.ShiftZero.enabled

Boolean. True iff ShiftZero invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.NumericInt.Square.enabled

Boolean. True iff square invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.NumericInt.ZeroTrack.enabled

Boolean. True iff zero-track invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseFloatEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff PairwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseFloatGreaterEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff PairwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseFloatGreaterThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff PairwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseFloatLessEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff PairwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseFloatLessThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff PairwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseIntEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff PairwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseIntGreaterEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff PairwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseIntGreaterThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff PairwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseIntLessEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff PairwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseIntLessThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff PairwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseLinearBinary.enabled

Boolean. True iff PairwiseLinearBinary invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseLinearBinaryFloat.enabled

Boolean. True iff PairwiseLinearBinary invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseNumericFloat.Divides.enabled

Boolean. True iff divides invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseNumericFloat.Square.enabled

Boolean. True iff square invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseNumericFloat.ZeroTrack.enabled

Boolean. True iff zero-track invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseNumericInt.BitwiseAndZero.enabled

Boolean. True iff BitwiseAndZero invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseNumericInt.BitwiseComplement.enabled

Boolean. True iff bitwise complement invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseNumericInt.BitwiseSubset.enabled

Boolean. True iff bitwise subset invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseNumericInt.Divides.enabled

Boolean. True iff divides invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseNumericInt.ShiftZero.enabled

Boolean. True iff ShiftZero invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseNumericInt.Square.enabled

Boolean. True iff square invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseNumericInt.ZeroTrack.enabled

Boolean. True iff zero-track invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseString.SubString.enabled

Boolean. True iff SubString invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseStringEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff PairwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseStringGreaterEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff PairwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseStringGreaterThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff PairwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseStringLessEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff PairwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.PairwiseStringLessThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff PairwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.Reverse.enabled

Boolean. True iff Reverse invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.ReverseFloat.enabled

Boolean. True iff Reverse invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SeqSeqFloatEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqSeqFloatEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SeqSeqFloatGreaterEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqSeqFloatGreaterEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SeqSeqFloatGreaterThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqSeqFloatGreaterThan invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SeqSeqFloatLessEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqSeqFloatLessEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SeqSeqFloatLessThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqSeqFloatLessThan invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SeqSeqIntEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqSeqIntEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SeqSeqIntGreaterEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqSeqIntGreaterEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SeqSeqIntGreaterThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqSeqIntGreaterThan invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SeqSeqIntLessEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqSeqIntLessEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SeqSeqIntLessThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqSeqIntLessThan invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SeqSeqStringEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqSeqStringEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SeqSeqStringGreaterEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqSeqStringGreaterEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SeqSeqStringGreaterThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqSeqStringGreaterThan invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SeqSeqStringLessEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqSeqStringLessEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SeqSeqStringLessThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqSeqStringLessThan invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SubSequence.enabled

Boolean. True iff SubSequence invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SubSequenceFloat.enabled

Boolean. True iff SubSequence invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SubSet.enabled

Boolean. True iff SubSet invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SubSetFloat.enabled

Boolean. True iff SubSet invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SuperSequence.enabled

Boolean. True iff SubSequence invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SuperSequenceFloat.enabled

Boolean. True iff SubSequence invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SuperSet.enabled

Boolean. True iff SubSet invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SuperSetFloat.enabled

Boolean. True iff SubSet invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoString.StdString.SubString.enabled

Boolean. True iff SubString invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoString.StringEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff StringEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoString.StringGreaterEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff StringGreaterEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoString.StringGreaterThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff StringGreaterThan invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoString.StringLessEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff StringLessEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoString.StringLessThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff StringLessThan invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoString.StringNonEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff StringNonEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.ternary.threeScalar.FunctionBinary.enabled

Boolean. True if FunctionBinary invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.ternary.threeScalar.FunctionBinaryFloat.enabled

Boolean. True if FunctionBinaryFloat invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.ternary.threeScalar.LinearTernary.enabled

Boolean. True iff LinearTernary invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.ternary.threeScalar.LinearTernaryFloat.enabled

Boolean. True iff LinearTernary invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.CompleteOneOfScalar.enabled

Boolean. True iff CompleteOneOfScalar invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.IsPointer.enabled

Boolean. True iff IsPointer invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.LowerBound.enabled

Boolean. True iff LowerBound invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.LowerBoundFloat.enabled

Boolean. True iff LowerBoundFloat invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.Modulus.enabled

Boolean. True iff Modulus invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.NonModulus.enabled

Boolean. True iff NonModulus invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.NonZero.enabled

Boolean. True iff NonZero invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.NonZeroFloat.enabled

Boolean. True iff NonZeroFloat invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.OneOfFloat.enabled

Boolean. True iff OneOf invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.OneOfScalar.enabled

Boolean. True iff OneOf invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.Positive.enabled

Boolean. True iff Positive invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.RangeInt.Even.enabled

Boolean. True if Even invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.RangeInt.PowerOfTwo.enabled

Boolean. True if PowerOfTwo invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.UpperBound.enabled

Boolean. True iff UpperBound invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.UpperBoundFloat.enabled

Boolean. True iff UpperBoundFloat invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.CommonFloatSequence.enabled

Boolean. True iff CommonSequence invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.CommonSequence.enabled

Boolean. True iff CommonSequence invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltLowerBound.enabled

Boolean. True iff EltLowerBound invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltLowerBoundFloat.enabled

Boolean. True iff EltLowerBoundFloat invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltNonZero.enabled

Boolean. True iff EltNonZero invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltNonZeroFloat.enabled

Boolean. True iff EltNonZero invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltOneOf.enabled

Boolean. True iff OneOf invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltOneOfFloat.enabled

Boolean. True iff OneOf invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltRangeInt.Even.enabled

Boolean. True if Even invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltRangeInt.PowerOfTwo.enabled

Boolean. True if PowerOfTwo invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltUpperBound.enabled

Boolean. True iff EltUpperBound invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltUpperBoundFloat.enabled

Boolean. True iff EltUpperBoundFloat invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltwiseFloatEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff EltwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltwiseFloatGreaterEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff EltwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltwiseFloatGreaterThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff EltwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltwiseFloatLessEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff EltwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltwiseFloatLessThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff EltwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltwiseIntEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff EltwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltwiseIntGreaterEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff EltwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltwiseIntGreaterThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff EltwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltwiseIntLessEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff EltwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltwiseIntLessThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff EltwiseIntComparison invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.NoDuplicates.enabled

Boolean. True iff NoDuplicates invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.NoDuplicatesFloat.enabled

Boolean. True iff NoDuplicates invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.OneOfFloatSequence.enabled

Boolean. True iff OneOf invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.OneOfSequence.enabled

Boolean. True iff OneOf invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexFloatEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqIndexFloatEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexFloatGreaterEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqIndexFloatGreaterEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexFloatGreaterThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqIndexFloatGreaterThan invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexFloatLessEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqIndexFloatLessEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexFloatLessThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqIndexFloatLessThan invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexFloatNonEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqIndexFloatNonEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexIntEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqIndexIntEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexIntGreaterEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqIndexIntGreaterEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexIntGreaterThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqIndexIntGreaterThan invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexIntLessEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqIndexIntLessEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexIntLessThan.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqIndexIntLessThan invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SeqIndexIntNonEqual.enabled

Boolean. True iff SeqIndexIntNonEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.string.CompleteOneOfString.enabled

Boolean. True iff PrintableString invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.string.OneOfString.enabled

Boolean. True iff OneOf invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.string.PrintableString.enabled

Boolean. True iff PrintableString invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.stringsequence.CommonStringSequence.enabled

Boolean. True iff CommonStringSequence invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.stringsequence.EltOneOfString.enabled

Boolean. True iff OneOf invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.unary.stringsequence.OneOfStringSequence.enabled

Boolean. True iff OneOf invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.


Next: , Previous: Options to enable/disable specific invariants, Up: List of configuration options   [Contents][Index]

6.1.1.3 Other invariant configuration parameters

The configuration options listed in this section parameterize the behavior of certain invariants. See Invariant list, for more information about the invariants.

daikon.inv.Invariant.confidence_limit

Floating-point number between 0 and 1. Invariants are displayed only if the confidence that the invariant did not occur by chance is greater than this. (May also be set via ‘--conf_limit’ switch to Daikon; refer to manual.) The default value is ‘0.99’.

daikon.inv.Invariant.fuzzy_ratio

Floating-point number between 0 and 0.1, representing the maximum relative difference between two floats for fuzzy comparisons. Larger values will result in floats that are relatively farther apart being treated as equal. A value of 0 essentially disables fuzzy comparisons. Specifically, if abs (1 - f1/f2) is less than or equal to this value, then the two doubles (f1 and f2) will be treated as equal by Daikon. The default value is ‘1.0E-4’.

daikon.inv.Invariant.simplify_define_predicates

A boolean value. If true, Daikon’s Simplify output (printed when the ‘--format simplify’ flag is enabled, and used internally by ‘--suppress_redundant’) will include new predicates representing some complex relationships in invariants, such as lexical ordering among sequences. If false, some complex relationships will appear in the output as complex quantified formulas, while others will not appear at all. When enabled, Simplify may be able to make more inferences, allowing ‘--suppress_redundant’ to suppress more redundant invariants, but Simplify may also run more slowly. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.binary.twoScalar.IntNonEqual.integral_only

Boolean. True iff IntNonEqual invariants should be considered. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.inv.filter.DerivedVariableFilter.class_re

Regular expression to match against the class name of derived variables. Invariants that contain derived variables that match will be filtered out. If null, nothing will be filtered out. The default value is ‘null’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.LowerBound.maximal_interesting

Long integer. Together with the corresponding minimal_interesting parameter, specifies the range of the computed constant that is “interesting” — the range that should be reported. For instance, setting minimal_interesting to -1 and maximal_interesting to 2 would only permit output of LowerBound invariants whose cutoff was one of (-1,0,1,2). The default value is ‘2’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.LowerBound.minimal_interesting

Long integer. Together with the corresponding maximal_interesting parameter, specifies the range of the computed constant that is “interesting” — the range that should be reported. For instance, setting minimal_interesting to -1 and maximal_interesting to 2 would only permit output of LowerBound invariants whose cutoff was one of (-1,0,1,2). The default value is ‘-1’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.LowerBoundFloat.maximal_interesting

Long integer. Together with the corresponding minimal_interesting parameter, specifies the range of the computed constant that is “interesting” — the range that should be reported. For instance, setting minimal_interesting to -1 and maximal_interesting to 2 would only permit output of LowerBoundFloat invariants whose cutoff was one of (-1,0,1,2). The default value is ‘2’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.LowerBoundFloat.minimal_interesting

Long integer. Together with the corresponding maximal_interesting parameter, specifies the range of the computed constant that is “interesting” — the range that should be reported. For instance, setting minimal_interesting to -1 and maximal_interesting to 2 would only permit output of LowerBoundFloat invariants whose cutoff was one of (-1,0,1,2). The default value is ‘-1’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.OneOfFloat.size

Positive integer. Specifies the maximum set size for this type of invariant (x is one of size items). The default value is ‘3’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.OneOfScalar.omit_hashcode_values_Simplify

Boolean. If true, invariants describing hashcode-typed variables as having any particular value will have an artificial value substituted for the exact hashhode values. The artificial values will stay the same from run to run even if the actual hashcode values change (as long as the OneOf invariants remain the same). If false, hashcodes will be formatted as the application of a hashcode uninterpreted function to an integer representing the bit pattern of the hashcode. One might wish to omit the exact values of the hashcodes because they are usually uninteresting; this is the same reason they print in the native Daikon format, for instance, as ‘var has only one value’ rather than ‘var == 150924732’. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.OneOfScalar.size

Positive integer. Specifies the maximum set size for this type of invariant (x is one of size items). The default value is ‘3’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.UpperBound.maximal_interesting

Long integer. Together with the corresponding minimal_interesting parameter, specifies the range of the computed constant that is “interesting” — the range that should be reported. For instance, setting minimal_interesting to -1 and maximal_interesting to 2 would only permit output of UpperBound invariants whose cutoff was one of (-1,0,1,2). The default value is ‘2’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.UpperBound.minimal_interesting

Long integer. Together with the corresponding maximal_interesting parameter, specifies the range of the computed constant that is “interesting” — the range that should be reported. For instance, setting minimal_interesting to -1 and maximal_interesting to 2 would only permit output of UpperBound invariants whose cutoff was one of (-1,0,1,2). The default value is ‘-1’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.UpperBoundFloat.maximal_interesting

Long integer. Together with the corresponding minimal_interesting parameter, specifies the range of the computed constant that is “interesting” — the range that should be reported. For instance, setting minimal_interesting to -1 and maximal_interesting to 2 would only permit output of UpperBoundFloat invariants whose cutoff was one of (-1,0,1,2). The default value is ‘2’.

daikon.inv.unary.scalar.UpperBoundFloat.minimal_interesting

Long integer. Together with the corresponding maximal_interesting parameter, specifies the range of the computed constant that is “interesting” — the range that should be reported. For instance, setting minimal_interesting to -1 and maximal_interesting to 2 would only permit output of UpperBoundFloat invariants whose cutoff was one of (-1,0,1,2). The default value is ‘-1’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.CommonFloatSequence.hashcode_seqs

Boolean. Set to true to consider common sequences over hashcodes (pointers). The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.CommonSequence.hashcode_seqs

Boolean. Set to true to consider common sequences over hashcodes (pointers). The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltLowerBound.maximal_interesting

Long integer. Together with the corresponding minimal_interesting parameter, specifies the range of the computed constant that is “interesting” — the range that should be reported. For instance, setting minimal_interesting to -1 and maximal_interesting to 2 would only permit output of EltLowerBound invariants whose cutoff was one of (-1,0,1,2). The default value is ‘2’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltLowerBound.minimal_interesting

Long integer. Together with the corresponding maximal_interesting parameter, specifies the range of the computed constant that is “interesting” — the range that should be reported. For instance, setting minimal_interesting to -1 and maximal_interesting to 2 would only permit output of EltLowerBound invariants whose cutoff was one of (-1,0,1,2). The default value is ‘-1’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltLowerBoundFloat.maximal_interesting

Long integer. Together with the corresponding minimal_interesting parameter, specifies the range of the computed constant that is “interesting” — the range that should be reported. For instance, setting minimal_interesting to -1 and maximal_interesting to 2 would only permit output of EltLowerBoundFloat invariants whose cutoff was one of (-1,0,1,2). The default value is ‘2’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltLowerBoundFloat.minimal_interesting

Long integer. Together with the corresponding maximal_interesting parameter, specifies the range of the computed constant that is “interesting” — the range that should be reported. For instance, setting minimal_interesting to -1 and maximal_interesting to 2 would only permit output of EltLowerBoundFloat invariants whose cutoff was one of (-1,0,1,2). The default value is ‘-1’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltOneOf.omit_hashcode_values_Simplify

Boolean. If true, invariants describing hashcode-typed variables as having any particular value will have an artificial value substituted for the exact hashhode values. The artificial values will stay the same from run to run even if the actual hashcode values change (as long as the OneOf invariants remain the same). If false, hashcodes will be formatted as the application of a hashcode uninterpreted function to an integer representing the bit pattern of the hashcode. One might wish to omit the exact values of the hashcodes because they are usually uninteresting; this is the same reason they print in the native Daikon format, for instance, as ‘var has only one value’ rather than ‘var == 150924732’. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltOneOf.size

Positive integer. Specifies the maximum set size for this type of invariant (x is one of size items). The default value is ‘3’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltOneOfFloat.size

Positive integer. Specifies the maximum set size for this type of invariant (x is one of size items). The default value is ‘3’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltUpperBound.maximal_interesting

Long integer. Together with the corresponding minimal_interesting parameter, specifies the range of the computed constant that is “interesting” — the range that should be reported. For instance, setting minimal_interesting to -1 and maximal_interesting to 2 would only permit output of EltUpperBound invariants whose cutoff was one of (-1,0,1,2). The default value is ‘2’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltUpperBound.minimal_interesting

Long integer. Together with the corresponding maximal_interesting parameter, specifies the range of the computed constant that is “interesting” — the range that should be reported. For instance, setting minimal_interesting to -1 and maximal_interesting to 2 would only permit output of EltUpperBound invariants whose cutoff was one of (-1,0,1,2). The default value is ‘-1’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltUpperBoundFloat.maximal_interesting

Long integer. Together with the corresponding minimal_interesting parameter, specifies the range of the computed constant that is “interesting” — the range that should be reported. For instance, setting minimal_interesting to -1 and maximal_interesting to 2 would only permit output of EltUpperBoundFloat invariants whose cutoff was one of (-1,0,1,2). The default value is ‘2’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.EltUpperBoundFloat.minimal_interesting

Long integer. Together with the corresponding maximal_interesting parameter, specifies the range of the computed constant that is “interesting” — the range that should be reported. For instance, setting minimal_interesting to -1 and maximal_interesting to 2 would only permit output of EltUpperBoundFloat invariants whose cutoff was one of (-1,0,1,2). The default value is ‘-1’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.OneOfFloatSequence.size

Positive integer. Specifies the maximum set size for this type of invariant (x is one of size items). The default value is ‘3’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.OneOfSequence.omit_hashcode_values_Simplify

Boolean. If true, invariants describing hashcode-typed variables as having any particular value will have an artificial value substituted for the exact hashhode values. The artificial values will stay the same from run to run even if the actual hashcode values change (as long as the OneOf invariants remain the same). If false, hashcodes will be formatted as the application of a hashcode uninterpreted function to an integer representing the bit pattern of the hashcode. One might wish to omit the exact values of the hashcodes because they are usually uninteresting; this is the same reason they print in the native Daikon format, for instance, as ‘var has only one value’ rather than ‘var == 150924732’. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.OneOfSequence.size

Positive integer. Specifies the maximum set size for this type of invariant (x is one of size items). The default value is ‘3’.

daikon.inv.unary.sequence.SingleSequence.SeqIndexDisableAll

Boolean. Set to true to disable all SeqIndex invariants (SeqIndexIntEqual, SeqIndexFloatLessThan, etc). This overrides the settings of the individual SeqIndex enable configuration options. To disable only some options, the options must be disabled individually. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.inv.unary.string.OneOfString.size

Positive integer. Specifies the maximum set size for this type of invariant (x is one of size items). The default value is ‘3’.

daikon.inv.unary.stringsequence.EltOneOfString.size

Positive integer. Specifies the maximum set size for this type of invariant (x is one of size items). The default value is ‘3’.

daikon.inv.unary.stringsequence.OneOfStringSequence.size

Positive integer. Specifies the maximum set size for this type of invariant (x is one of size items). The default value is ‘2’.


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6.1.1.4 Options to enable/disable derived variables

These options control whether Daikon looks for invariants involving certain forms of derived variables. Also see Variable names.

daikon.derive.Derivation.disable_derived_variables

Boolean. If true, Daikon will not create any derived variables. Derived variables, which are combinations of variables that appeared in the program, like array[index] if array and index appeared, can increase the number of properties Daikon finds, especially over sequences. However, derived variables increase Daikon’s time and memory usage, sometimes dramatically. If false, individual kinds of derived variables can be enabled or disabled individually using configuration options under ‘daikon.derive’. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.binary.SequenceFloatIntersection.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequenceFloatIntersection derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.binary.SequenceFloatSubscript.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequenceFloatSubscript derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.derive.binary.SequenceFloatSubsequence.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequenceFloatSubsequence derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.binary.SequenceFloatUnion.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequenceFloatUnion derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.binary.SequenceScalarIntersection.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequenceScalarIntersection derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.binary.SequenceScalarSubscript.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequenceScalarSubscript derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.derive.binary.SequenceScalarSubsequence.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequenceScalarSubsequence derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.binary.SequenceScalarUnion.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequenceScalarUnion derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.binary.SequenceStringIntersection.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequenceStringIntersection derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.binary.SequenceStringSubscript.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequenceStringSubscript derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.derive.binary.SequenceStringSubsequence.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequenceStringSubsequence derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.binary.SequenceStringUnion.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequenceStringUnion derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.binary.SequencesConcat.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequencesConcat derived variables should be created. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.binary.SequencesJoin.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequencesJoin derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.binary.SequencesJoinFloat.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequencesJoin derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.binary.SequencesPredicate.boolOnly

Boolean. True if Daikon should only generate derivations on boolean predicates. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.derive.binary.SequencesPredicate.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequencesPredicate derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.binary.SequencesPredicate.fieldOnly

Boolean. True if Daikon should only generate derivations on fields of the same data structure. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.derive.binary.SequencesPredicateFloat.boolOnly

Boolean. True if Daikon should only generate derivations on boolean predicates. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.derive.binary.SequencesPredicateFloat.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequencesPredicate derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.binary.SequencesPredicateFloat.fieldOnly

Boolean. True if Daikon should only generate derivations on fields of the same data structure. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.derive.ternary.SequenceFloatArbitrarySubsequence.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequenceFloatArbitrarySubsequence derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.ternary.SequenceScalarArbitrarySubsequence.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequenceScalarArbitrarySubsequence derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.ternary.SequenceStringArbitrarySubsequence.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequenceStringArbitrarySubsequence derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.unary.SequenceInitial.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequenceInitial derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.unary.SequenceInitialFloat.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequenceInitial derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.unary.SequenceLength.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequenceLength derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.derive.unary.SequenceMax.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequencesMax derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.unary.SequenceMin.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequenceMin derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.unary.SequenceSum.enabled

Boolean. True iff SequenceSum derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.derive.unary.StringLength.enabled

Boolean. True iff StringLength derived variables should be generated. The default value is ‘false’.


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6.1.1.5 Simplify interface configuration options

The configuration options in this section are used to customize the interface to the Simplify theorem prover. See the description of the --suppress_redundant command-line option in Options to control invariant detection.

daikon.simplify.LemmaStack.print_contradictions

Boolean. Controls Daikon’s response when inconsistent invariants are discovered while running Simplify. If true, Daikon will print an error message to the standard error stream listing the contradictory invariants. This is mainly intended for debugging Daikon itself, but can sometimes be helpful in tracing down other problems. For more information, see the section on troubleshooting contradictory invariants in the Daikon manual. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.simplify.LemmaStack.remove_contradictions

Boolean. Controls Daikon’s response when inconsistent invariants are discovered while running Simplify. If false, Daikon will give up on using Simplify for that program point. If true, Daikon will try to find a small subset of the invariants that cause the contradiction and avoid them, to allow processing to continue. For more information, see the section on troubleshooting contradictory invariants in the Daikon manual. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.simplify.LemmaStack.synchronous_errors

Boolean. If true, ask Simplify to check a simple proposition after each assumption is pushed, providing an opportunity to wait for output from Simplify and potentially receive error messages about the assumption. When false, long sequences of assumptions may be pushed in a row, so that by the time an error message arrives, it’s not clear which input caused the error. Of course, Daikon’s input to Simplify isn’t supposed to cause errors, so this option should only be needed for debugging. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.simplify.Session.simplify_max_iterations

A non-negative integer, representing the largest number of iterations for which Simplify should be allowed to run on any single conjecture before giving up. Larger values may cause Simplify to run longer, but will increase the number of invariants that can be recognized as redundant. The default value is small enough to keep Simplify from running for more than a few seconds on any one conjecture, allowing it to verify most simple facts without getting bogged down in long searches. A value of 0 means not to bound the number of iterations at all, though see also the simplify_timeout parameter.. The default value is ‘1000’.

daikon.simplify.Session.simplify_timeout

A non-negative integer, representing the longest time period (in seconds) Simplify should be allowed to run on any single conjecture before giving up. Larger values may cause Simplify to run longer, but will increase the number of invariants that can be recognized as redundant. Roughly speaking, the time spent in Simplify will be bounded by this value, times the number of invariants generated, though it can be much less. A value of 0 means to not bound Simplify at all by time, though also see the option simplify_max_iterations. Beware that using this option might make Daikon’s output depend on the speed of the machine it’s run on. The default value is ‘0’.

daikon.simplify.Session.trace_input

Boolean. If true, the input to the Simplify theorem prover will also be directed to a file named simplifyN.in (where N is a number starting from 0) in the current directory. Simplify’s operation can then be reproduced with a command like ‘Simplify -nosc &lt;simplify0.in’. This is intended primarily for debugging when Simplify fails. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.simplify.Session.verbose_progress

Positive values mean to print extra indications as each candidate invariant is passed to Simplify during the --suppress_redundant check. If the value is 1 or higher, a hyphen will be printed when each invariant is passed to Simplify, and then replaced by a ‘T’ if the invariant was redundant, ‘F’ if it was not found to be, and ‘?’ if Simplify gave up because of a time limit. If the value is 2 or higher, a ‘<’ or ‘>’ will also be printed for each invariant that is pushed onto or popped from from Simplify’s assumption stack. This option is mainly intended for debugging purposes, but can also provide something to watch when Simplify takes a long time. The default value is ‘0’.


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6.1.1.6 Splitter options

The configuration options in this section are used to customize the the behavior of splitters, which yield conditional invariants and implications (see Conditional invariants).

daikon.split.ContextSplitterFactory.granularity

Enumeration (integer). Specifies the granularity to use for callsite splitter processing. 0 is line-level granularity; 1 is method-level granularity; 2 is class-level granularity. The default value is ‘1’.

daikon.split.PptSplitter.disable_splitting

Boolean. Controls whether or not splitting based on the built-in splitting rules is disabled. The built-in rules look for implications based on boolean return values and also when there are exactly two exit points from a method. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.split.PptSplitter.dummy_invariant_level

Integer. A value of zero indicates that DummyInvariant objects should not be created. A value of one indicates that dummy invariants should be created only when no suitable condition was found in the regular output. A value of two indicates that dummy invariants should be created for each splitting condition. The default value is ‘0’.

daikon.split.PptSplitter.split_bi_implications

Split bi-implications into two separate invariants. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.split.PptSplitter.suppressSplitterErrors

When true compilation errors during splitter file generation will not be reported to the user. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.split.SplitterFactory.compile_timeout

Positive integer. Specifies the Splitter compilation timeout, in seconds, after which the compilation process is terminated and retried, on the assumption that it has hung. The default value is ‘6’.

daikon.split.SplitterFactory.compiler

String. Specifies which Java compiler is used to compile Splitters. This can be the full path name or whatever is used on the commandline. The default value is ‘javac -classpath /homes/gws/markro/invariants/daikon/daikon.jar’.

daikon.split.SplitterFactory.delete_splitters_on_exit

Boolean. Specifies whether or not the temporary Splitter files should be deleted on exit. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.split.SplitterList.all_splitters

Boolean. Enables indiscriminate splitting (see Daikon manual, Indiscriminate splitting, for an explanation of this technique). The default value is ‘true’.


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6.1.1.7 Debugging options

The configuration options in this section are used to cause extra output that is useful for debugging.

daikon.Debug.check_bb_connections

If true, check all of the basic blocks that make up a function to ensure that there is a path from function entry to the block. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.Debug.internal_check

When true, perform detailed internal checking. These are essentially additional, possibly costly assert statements. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.Debug.logDetail

Determines whether or not detailed info (such as from add_modified) is printed. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.Debug.showTraceback

Determines whether or not traceback information is printed for each call to log. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.Debug.show_stack_trace

If true, show stack traces for errors such as file format errors. The default value is ‘false’.


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6.1.1.8 General configuration options

This section lists miscellaneous configuration options for Daikon.

daikon.Daikon.calc_possible_invs

Boolean. Just print the total number of possible invariants and exit. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.Daikon.enable_floats

Boolean. Controls whether invariants are reported over floating-point values. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.Daikon.guardNulls

If "always", then invariants are always guarded. If "never", then invariants are never guarded. If "missing", then invariants are guarded only for variables that were missing ("can be missing") in the dtrace (the observed executions).

Guarding means adding predicates that ensure that variables can be dereferenced. For instance, if a can be null — that is, if a.b can be nonsensical — then the guarded version of ‘a.b == 5’ is ‘(a != null) ==> (a.b == 5)’.

(To do: Some configuration option (maybe this one) should add guards for other reasons that lead to nonsensical values (see Variable names).) The default value is ‘default’.

daikon.Daikon.output_conditionals

Boolean. Controls whether conditional program points are displayed. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.Daikon.ppt_perc

Integer. Percentage of program points to process. All program points are sorted by name, and all samples for the first ppt_perc program points are processed. A percentage of 100 matches all program points. The default value is ‘100’.

daikon.Daikon.print_sample_totals

Boolean. Controls whether or not the total samples read and processed are printed at the end of processing. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.Daikon.progress_delay

The amount of time to wait between updates of the progress display, measured in milliseconds. A value of -1 means do not print the progress display at all. The default value is ‘1000’.

daikon.Daikon.progress_display_width

The number of columns of progress information to display. In many Unix shells, this can be set to an appropriate value by ‘--config_option daikon.Daikon.progress_display_width=$COLUMNS’. The default value is ‘80’.

daikon.Daikon.quiet

Boolean. Controls whether or not processing information is printed out. Setting this variable to true also automatically sets progress_delay to -1. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.Daikon.undo_opts

Boolean. Controls whether the Daikon optimizations (equality sets, suppressions) are undone at the end to create a more complete set of invariants. Output does not include conditional program points, implications, reflexive and partially reflexive invariants. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.DynamicConstants.OneOf_only

Boolean. If true only create OneOf invariants for variables that are constant for the entire run. If false, all possible invariants are created between constants. Note that setting this to true only fails to create invariants between constants. Invariants between constants and non-constants are created regardless.

A problem occurs with merging when this is turned on. If a var_info is constant at one child slice, but not constant at the other child slice, interesting invariants may not be merged because they won’t exist on the slice with the constant. This is thus currently defaulted to false. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.DynamicConstants.use_dynamic_constant_optimization

Whether to use the dynamic constants optimization. This optimization doesn’t instantiate invariants over constant variables (i.e., that that have only seen one value). When the variable receives a second value, invariants are instantiated and are given the sample representing the previous constant value. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.FileIO.add_changed

Boolean. When false, set modbits to 1 iff the printed representation has changed. When true, set modbits to 1 if the printed representation has changed; leave other modbits as is. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.FileIO.continue_after_file_exception

Boolean. When true, suppress exceptions related to file reading. This permits Daikon to continue even if there is a malformed trace file. Use this with care: in general, it is better to fix the problem that caused a bad trace file, rather than to suppress the exception. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.FileIO.count_lines

Boolean. When false, don’t count the number of lines in the dtrace file before reading. This will disable the percentage progress printout. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.FileIO.dtrace_line_count

Long integer. If non-zero, this value will be used as the number of lines in (each) dtrace file input for the purposes of the progress display, and the counting of the lines in the file will be suppressed. The default value is ‘0’.

daikon.FileIO.ignore_missing_enter

When true, just ignore exit ppts that don’t have a matching enter ppt rather than exiting with an error. Unmatched exits can occur if only a portion of a dtrace file is processed. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.FileIO.max_line_number

Integer. Maximum number of lines to read from the dtrace file. If 0, reads the entire file. The default value is ‘0’.

daikon.FileIO.merge_basic_blocks

If true, variables from basic blocks which predominate a basic block X will be included when X is processed. This allows Daikon to find invariants between variables in different program points (basic blocks in this case). The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.FileIO.read_samples_only

Boolean. When true, only read the samples, but don’t process them. Used to gather timing information. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.FileIO.rm_stack_dups

If true, modified all ppt names to remove duplicate routine names within the ppt name. This is used when a stack trace (of active methods) is used as the ppt name. The routine names must be separated by vertical bars (|). The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.FileIO.unmatched_procedure_entries_quiet

Boolean. When true, don’t print a warning about unmatched procedure entries, which are ignored by Daikon (unless the –nohierarchy switch is provided). The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.FileIO.verbose_unmatched_procedure_entries

Boolean. If true, prints the unmatched procedure entries verbosely. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.PptCombined.asm_path_name

If non-null, we will compute redundant binary variables when creating a CombinedProgramPoint, using the assembly information in the file specified. The default value is ‘null’.

daikon.PptCombined.rvars_file

If redundant variables are being computed, the results of the redundancy analysis are printed to this stream. See dkconfig_asm_path_name above. The default value is ‘null’.

daikon.PptRelation.enable_object_user

Boolean. Controls whether the object-user relation is created in the variable hierarchy. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.PptSliceEquality.set_per_var

If true, create one equality set for each variable. This has the effect of turning the equality optimization off, without actually removing the sets themselves (which are presumed to exist in many parts of the code). The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.PptTopLevel.pairwise_implications

Boolean. If true, create implications for all pairwise combinations of conditions, and all pairwise combinations of exit points. If false, create implications for only the first two conditions, and create implications only if there are exactly two exit points. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.PptTopLevel.remove_merged_invs

Remove invariants at lower program points when a matching invariant is created at a higher program point. For experimental purposes only. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.PrintInvariants.old_array_names

In the new decl format, print array names without as ’a[]’ as opposed to ’a[..]’ This creates names that are more compatible with the old output. This option has no effect in the old decl format. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.PrintInvariants.print_all

If true, print all invariants without any filtering. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.PrintInvariants.print_inv_class

Print invariant classname with invariants in output of format() method, normally used only for debugging output rather than ordinary printing of invariants. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.PrintInvariants.remove_post_vars

If true, remove as many variables as possible that need to be indicated as ’post’. Post variables occur when the subscript for a derived variable with an orig sequence is not orig. For example: orig(a[post(i)]) An equivalent expression involving only orig variables is substitued for the post variable when one exists. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.PrintInvariants.replace_prestate

This option must be given with "–format Java" option.

Instead of outputting prestate expressions as "\old(E)" within an invariant, output a variable name (e.g. ‘v1’). At the end of each program point, output the list of variable-to-expression mappings. For example: with this option set to false, a program point might print like this:

<pre> foo.bar.Bar(int):::EXIT \old(capacity) == sizeof(this.theArray) </pre>

With the option set to true, it would print like this:

<pre> foo.bar.Bar(int):::EXIT v0 == sizeof(this.theArray) prestate assignment: v0=capacity </pre> The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.PrintInvariants.static_const_infer

This enables a different way of treating static constant variables. They are not created into invariants into slices. Instead, they are examined during print time. If a unary invariant contains a value which matches the value of a static constant varible, the value will be replaced by the name of the variable, "if it makes sense". For example, if there is a static constant variable a = 1. And there exists an invariant x <= 1, x <= a would be the result printed. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.PrintInvariants.true_inv_cnt

If true, print the total number of true invariants. This includes invariants that are redundant and would normally not be printed or even created due to optimizations. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.ProglangType.convert_to_signed

If true, treat 32 bit values whose high bit is on, as a negative number (rather than as a 32 bit unsigned). The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.VarInfo.constant_fields_simplify

If true, the treat static constants (such as MapQuick.GeoPoint.FACTOR) as fields within an object rather than as a single name. Not correct, but used to obtain compatibility with VarInfoName. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.VarInfo.declared_type_comparability

If true, then variables are only considered comparable if they are declared with the same type. For example, java.util.List is not comparable to java.util.ArrayList and float is not comparable to double. This may miss valid invariants, but significant time can be saved and many variables with different declared types are not comparable (e.g., java.util.Date and java.util.ArrayList). The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.chicory.DaikonVariableInfo.constant_infer

Enable experimental techniques on static constants. The default value is ‘false’.

daikon.suppress.NIS.enabled

Boolean. If true, enable non-instantiating suppressions. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.suppress.NIS.hybrid_threshhold

Int. Less and equal to this number means use the falsified method in the hybrid method of processing falsified invariants, while greater than this number means use the antecedent method. Empirical data shows that number should not be more than 10000. The default value is ‘2500’.

daikon.suppress.NIS.skip_hashcode_type

Boolean. If true, skip variables of file rep type hashcode when creating invariants over constants in the antecedent method. The default value is ‘true’.

daikon.suppress.NIS.suppression_processor

Specifies the algorithm that NIS uses to process suppressions. Possible selections are ’HYBRID’, ’ANTECEDENT’, and ’FALSIFIED’. The default is the hybrid algorithm which uses the falsified algorithm when only a small number of suppressions need to be processed and the antecedent algorithm when a large number of suppressions are processed. The default value is ‘HYBRID’.

daikon.suppress.NIS.suppressor_list

Boolean. If true, use the specific list of suppressor related invariant prototypes when creating constant invariants in the antecedent method. The default value is ‘true’.


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6.2 Conditional invariants and implications

Conditional invariants are invariants that are true only part of the time. For instance, the postcondition for the absolute value procedure is

if arg < 0
  then return == -arg
  else return == arg

The invariant return == -arg is a conditional invariant because it depends on the predicate arg < 0 being true. An implication is a compound invariant that includes both the predicate and the conditional invariant (also called the consequent).

Another type of implication is a context-sensitive invariant — a fact about method A that is true only when A is called by method B, but not true in general about A. Implications can be used to construct context-sensitive invariants: set a variable that depends on the call site, then compute an implication whose predicate tests that variable. For an example, see the paper Selecting, refining, and evaluating predicates for program analysis (http://plse.cs.washington.edu/daikon/pubs/predicates-tr914-abstract.html).

Daikon must be supplied with the predicate for an implication. Daikon has certain built-in predicates that it uses for finding conditional invariants; examples are which return statement was executed in a procedure and whether a boolean procedure returns true or false. Additionally, Daikon can read predicates from a file called a splitter info (.spinfo) file and find implications based on those predicates. The splitter info file can be produced automatically, such as by static analysis of the program using the CreateSpinfo and CreateSpinfoC programs (see Static analysis for splitters) or by cluster analysis of the traced values in the data trace file. Details of these techniques and usage guides can be found in Enhancing conditional invariant detection. Users can also create splitter info files by hand or manually augment automatically-created ones.

To detect conditional invariants and implications:

  1. Create the splitter info file, either automatically or by hand.
  2. Run Daikon with the .spinfo file as one of its arguments. (The order of arguments does not matter.) For example,
    java daikon.Daikon Foo.decls Foo.spinfo Foo.dtrace
    

The term splitter comes from Daikon’s technique for detecting implications and conditional invariants. For each predicate, Daikon creates two conditional program points — one for program executions that satisfy the condition and one for those that don’t — and splits the data trace into two parts. Invariant detection is then performed on the conditional program points (that is, the parts of the data trace) separately and any invariants detected are reported as conditional invariants (as implications).

To be precise, we say that an invariant holds exclusively if it is discovered on one side of a split, and its negation is discovered on the opposite side. Daikon creates conditional invariants whose predicates are invariants that hold exclusively on one side of a split, and whose consequents are invariants that hold on that side of the split but not on the unsplit program point. If Daikon finds multiple exclusive conditions, it will create biconditional (“if and only if”) invariants between the equivalent conditions. Within the context of the program, each of the exclusive conditions is equivalent to the splitting condition. In particular, if both the splitting condition and its negation are within the grammar of invariants that Daikon detects, the splitting condition may appear as the predicate of the generated conditional invariants. On the other hand, if other equivalent conditions are found, or if the splitting condition is not expressible in Daikon’s grammar, it might not appear in the generated implications.

In some cases, the default policy of selecting predicates from Daikon’s output may be insufficient. For instance, Daikon might not detect any invariant equivalent to the splitting condition, if the splitting condition is sufficiently complex or application-specific. In such situations, Daikon can also use the splitting condition itself, as what is called a dummy invariant. To use dummy invariants, the configuration option daikon.split.PptSplitter.dummy_invariant_level must be set to a non-zero value (see List of configuration options).


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6.2.1 Splitter info file format

A splitter info file contains the conditions that Daikon should use to create conditional invariants. Each section in the .spinfo file consists of a sequence of non-blank lines; sections are separated by blank lines. There are two types of sections: program point sections and replacement sections. See Example splitter info file, for an example splitter info file.


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6.2.1.1 Program point sections

Program point sections have a line specifying a program point name followed by lines specifying the condition(s) associated with that program point, each condition on its own line. Additional information about a condition may be specified on indented lines. For example, a typical entry is

PPT_NAME pptname
condition1
condition2
    DAIKON_FORMAT output string
    ESC_FORMAT output string
condition3
...

pptname can be any string that matches a part of the desired program point name as printed in the .decls file. In finding matching program points, Daikon uses the first program point that matches pptname. Caution is necessary when dealing with method names that are prefixes of other method names. For instance, if the class List has methods add and addAll, specifying ‘PPT_NAME List.add’ might select either method, depending on which was encountered first. Instead writing ‘PPT_NAME List.add(’ will match only the add method.

Each condition is a Java expression of boolean type. All variables that appear in the condition must also appear in the declaration of the program point in the .decls file. (In other words, all the variables must be in scope at the program point(s) where the Splitter is intended to operate.) The automatically generated Splitter source code fails to compile (but Daikon proceeds without it) if a variable name in a condition is not found at the matching program point.

Indented lines beginning with ‘DAIKON_FORMAT’, ‘JAVA_FORMAT’, ‘ESC_FORMAT’, or ‘SIMPLIFY_FORMAT’ may be used to specify how to represent the condition specified by the splitter in each of Daikon’s output formats, to allow the splitting condition to be used as a dummy invariant.


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6.2.1.2 Replacement sections

Ordinarily, a splitting condition may not invoke user-defined methods, because when Daikon reads data trace files, it does not have access to the program source. A replace section of the splitter info file can specify the bodies of methods, permitting conditions to invoke those methods. The format is as follows:

REPLACE
procedure1
replacement1
procedure2
replacement2
...

where replacementi is a Java expression for the body of procedurei. In each condition, Daikon replaces procedure calls by their replacements. A replace section may appear anywhere in the splitter info file.


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6.2.2 Indiscriminate splitting

Ordinarily, each condition in an .spinfo file gives rise to conditional invariants only at the program point in whose section the condition appears. Alternately, every condition can be used at every program point, regardless of where in the .spinfo file the condition appeared; this latter approach is called indiscriminate splitting.

The advantage of indiscriminate splitting is that a condition that is useful at one program point may also be useful at another — if the same variables are in scope or other variables of the same name are in scope. The disadvantage of indiscriminate splitting is that often the condition is not applicable everywhere, and when it is, it may not be useful at all such locations, so checking for many conditional invariants may slow down Daikon without a corresponding benefit. Indiscriminate splitting can result in Daikon attempting to use many conditions that are inappropriate at certain program points, for instance because the program point does not have (in scope) all the variables that are used in the condition. For example, the condition myArray.length == x is inapplicable at a program point if either of myArray and x is not in scope at that program point. In this case, Daikon prints a warning message and proceeds, using conditions wherever they are valid.

By default, Daikon uses indiscriminate splitting. To use non-indiscriminate splitting, place the following line in a file that is passed to Daikon via the --config flag (see Daikon configuration options):

daikon.split.SplitterList.all_splitters = false

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6.2.3 Example splitter info file

Below is an implementation of a simple Queue for positive integers and a corresponding .spinfo file. The splitter info file is like the one that CreateSpinfo would create for that class, but also demonstrates some other features.


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6.2.3.1 Example class

class simpleStack {

  private int[] myArray;
  private int currentSize;

  public simpleStack(int capacity) {
    myArray = new int[capacity];
    currentSize = 0;
  }

  /** Adds an element to the back of the stack, if the stack is
    * not full.
    * Returns true if this succeeds, false otherwise.  **/
  public String push(int x) {
    if ( !isFull() && x >= 0) {
      myArray[currentSize] = x;
      currentSize++;
      return true;
    } else {
      return false;
    }
  }

  /** Returns the most recently inserted stack element.
    * Returns -1 if the stack is empty. **/
  public int pop() {
    if ( !isEmpty() ) {
      currentSize--;
      return myArray[currentSize];
    } else {
      return -1;
    }
  }

 /** Returns true if the stack is empty, false otherwise. **/
  private boolean isEmpty() {
    return (currentSize == 0);
  }

  /** Returns true if the stack is full, false otherwise. **/
  private boolean isFull() {
    return (currentSize == myArray.length);
  }
}

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6.2.3.2 Resulting .spinfo file

REPLACE
isFull()
currentSize == myArray.length
isEmpty()
currentSize == 0

PPT_NAME  simpleStack.push
!isFull() && x >= 0
    DAIKON_FORMAT !isFull() and x >= 0
    SIMPLIFY_FORMAT (AND (NOT (isFull this)) (>= x 0))

PPT_NAME  simpleStack.pop
!isEmpty()

PPT_NAME  simpleStack.isFull
currentSize == myArray.length - 1

PPT_NAME  simpleStack.isEmpty
currentSize == 0

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6.3 Enhancing conditional invariant detection

The built-in mechanisms (see Conditional invariants) have limitations in the invariants they can find. By supplying splitting conditions to Daikon via a splitter info file, the user can infer more conditional invariants. To ease this task, there are two methods to automatically create splitter info files for use by Daikon.


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6.3.1 Static analysis for splitters

In static analysis, all explicitly stated boolean statements in the program source are extracted and used as splitting conditions. The assumption is that conditions that are explicitly tested in the program are likely to affect the program’s behavior and could lead to useful conditional invariants.

The CreateSpinfo program takes Java source code as input and creates a splitter info file for each input file; for instance,

java daikon.tools.jtb.CreateSpinfo Foo.java Bar.java

creates the splitter info files Foo.spinfo and Bar.spinfo. Given an -o filename argument, CreateSpinfo puts all the splitters in the specified file instead. The resulting splitter info file(s) contains each boolean expression that appears in the source code. The conditional statements that the programmer used in the source code are likely to have important semantic properties. This simple heuristic of using these conditional statements as predicates for conditional invariant detection is often quite effective.

If you get an error such as

jtb.ParseException: Encountered ";" at line 253, column 8.
Was expecting one of: "abstract" ...

then you may have encountered a bug in the JTB library on which CreateSpinfo is built. It does not permit empty declarations in a class body. Remove the extra semicolon in your Java file (at the indicated position) and re-rerun CreateSpinfo.

The CreateSpinfoC program performs the same function, for C source code. It can only be run on postprocessed source files—that is, source files contain no CPP commands. CPP commands are lines starting with ‘#’, such as ‘#include’. To expand CPP commands into legal C, run either cpp -P or gcc -P -E. For instance, here is how you could use it.

cpp -P foo.c foo.c-expanded
cpp -P bar.c bar.c-expanded
java daikon.tools.jtb.CreateSpinfoC \
     foo.c-expanded bar.c-expanded

WARNING: The names produced by CreateSpinfoC sometimes differ from the names produced by Kvasir. For example, suppose you have a C file that contains a function ‘foo’. Then CreateSpinfoC may create a .spinfo file that mentions a program point named ‘std.foo’, whereas Kvasir creates a .dtrace file that mentions a program point named ‘..foo’. Such a mismatch will cause Daikon to produce no conditional invariants for the given program point. This is a bug that needs to be fixed! (Patches are welcome.) In the meanwhile, you can edit the generated .spinfo file to conform to the .dtrace file’s naming conventions.

If you get an error such as

... Lexical error at line 5, column 1.
Encountered: "#" (35), after : ""

then you forgot to run CPP before running CreateSpinfoC.

If you get an error such as

CreateSpinfoC encountered errors during parse.
Encountered "__extension__ typedef struct {  ...

then your program uses non-standard C syntax. The ‘__extension__’ keyword is supported only by the GCC compiler, and isn’t handled by the CreateSpinfoC program. You could extend the CreateSpinfoC program to handle non-standard GCC extensions, or you could remove non-standard GCC extensions from your program. The extensions might also result from standard libraries rather than your own program — removing a directives such as ‘#include <stdio.h>’ when preprocessing may also resolve the problem.


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6.3.2 Cluster analysis for splitters

Cluster analysis is a statistical method that finds groups or clusters in data. The clusters may indicate conditional properties in the program. A conditional property at a program point separates the data into those that satisfy it and those that do not, and conditional invariants can be induced by clustering. Any invariant that is discovered over one cluster but not over another is a conditional invariant—the predicate for the conditional invariant being membership in the cluster in which the invariant was found. The cluster analysis mechanism finds clusters in the data trace file, infers invariants over any clusters that it finds, and writes these invariants into a splitter info file for conditional invariant detection.

To find splitting conditions using cluster analysis, run the runcluster.pl program (found in the $DAIKONDIR/scripts directory) in the following way:

runcluster.pl [options] dtrace_file ... decls_files ...

The options are:

-a ALG
--algorithm ALG

ALG specifies a clustering algorithm. Current options are ‘km’ (for kmeans), ‘hierarchical’, and ‘xm’ (for xmeans). The default is ‘xm’.

-k

The number of clusters to use (for algorithms which require this input, which is everything except xmeans). The default is 4.

--keep

Don’t delete the temporary files created by the clustering process. This is a debugging flag.

The runcluster.pl script currently supports three clustering programs. They are implementations of the kmeans algorithm, hierarchical clustering and the xmeans algorithm (kmeans algorithm with efficient discovery of the number of clusters). The kmeans and hierarchical clustering tools are provided in the Daikon distribution. The xmeans code and executable are publicly available at http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dpelleg/kmeans.html (fill in the license form and mail it in).


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6.3.3 Random selection for splitters

Random selection can create representative samples of a data set with the added benefit of finding conditional properties and eliminating outliers. Given traced data, the TraceSelect tool creates several small subsets of the data by randomly selecting parts of the original trace file. Any invariant that is discovered in the smaller samples but not found over the entire data is a conditional invariant.

To find splitting conditions using random selection, run the daikon.tools.TraceSelect program in the following way:

java daikon.tools.TraceSelect num_reps sample_size [options] \
    dtrace_file decls_files ... [daikon_options]

num_reps is the number of subsets to create, and sample_size is the number of invocations to collect for each method.

The daikon_options are the same options that can be provided to the daikon.Daikon program.

The options for TraceSelect are:

-NOCLEAN

Don’t delete the temporary trace samples created by the random selection process. This can help for debugging or for using the tool solely to create trace samples instead of calculating invariants over the samples.

-INCLUDE_UNRETURNED

Allows random selection to choose method invocations that entered the method successfully but did not exit normally; either from a thrown Exception or abnormal termination.

-DO_DIFFS

Creates an .spinfo file for generating conditional invariants and implications by reporting the invariants that appear in at least one of the samples but not over the entire data set.


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6.4 Dynamic abstract type inference (DynComp)

Abstract types group variables that are used for related purposes in a program. For example, suppose that some int variables in your program are array lengths or indices, and other int variables represent time. Even thought these variables have the same type (int) in the programming language, they have different abstract types.

Abstract types can be provided as additional input to Daikon, so that it only infers invariants between values of the same abstract type. This can improve Daikon’s performance, because it reduces the number of potential invariants that must be checked, and also improve the relevance of its output, since invariants over unrelated variables are superfluous for many tasks. The Daikon distribution includes a tool named DynComp that dynamically infers abstract types (also called comparability types) from program executions. (In fact, there are two implementations of DynComp that use the same algorithm, one for Java programs and one for binaries compiled from C and C++ source code. When confusion would otherwise arise, we distinguish them as DynCompJ (or DynComp for Java) and DynCompB (or DynComp for C/C++) respectively.)

Because abstract type inference must be performed before Daikon runs, it is integrated with the front-ends rather than directly as part of Daikon.


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6.5 Loop invariants

Daikon does not by default output loop invariants. Daikon can detect invariants at any location where it is provided with variable values, but currently Daikon’s front ends do not supply Daikon with variable values at loop heads.

You could extend a front end to output more variable values, or you could write a new front end.

Alternately, here is a way to use the current front ends to produce loop invariants. This workaround requires you to change your program, but it requires no change to Daikon or its front ends.

At the top of a loop (or at any other location in the program at which you would like to obtain invariants), insert a call to a dummy procedure that does no work but returns immediately. Pass, as arguments to the dummy procedure, all variables of interest (including local variables). Daikon will produce (identical) preconditions and postconditions for the dummy procedure; these are properties that held at the call site.

For instance, you might change the original code

  public void calculate(int x) {
    int tmp = 0;
    while (x > 0) {
      // you desire to compute an invariant here
      tmp=tmp+x;
      x=x-1;
    }
  }

into

  public void calculate(int x) {
    int tmp = 0;
    while (x > 0) {
      calculate_loophead(x, tmp);
      tmp=tmp+x;
      x=x-1;
    }
  }

  // dummy procedure
  public void calculate_loophead(int x, int tmp) {
  }

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7 Front ends (instrumentation)

The Daikon invariant detector is a machine learning tool that finds patterns (invariants) in data. That data can come from any source, but Daikon is typically used to find invariants over variable values in running programs. A front end is a tool that converts data from some other format into Daikon’s input format. The most common type of front end is an instrumenter, which causes your program to output a .dtrace file that Daikon can process.

This chapter describes several front ends (instrumenters) that are part of Daikon. It is relatively easy to build your own front end, if these do not serve your purpose; we are aware of a number of users who have done so. For more information about building a new front end, see New front ends in Daikon Developer Manual.


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7.1 Java front end Chicory

The Daikon front end for Java, named Chicory, executes Java programs, creates data trace (.dtrace) files, and optionally runs Daikon on them. Chicory is named after the chicory plant, whose root is sometimes used as a coffee substitute or flavor enhancer.

To use Chicory, run your program as you normally would, but replace the java command with java daikon.Chicory. For instance, if you usually run

java mypackage.MyClass arg1 arg2 arg3

then instead you would run

java daikon.Chicory mypackage.MyClass arg1 arg2 arg3

This runs your program and creates file MyClass.dtrace in the current directory. Furthermore, a single command can both create a trace file and run Daikon:

java daikon.Chicory --daikon mypackage.MyClass arg1 arg2 arg3

See below for more options.

That’s all there is to it! Since Chicory instruments class files directly as they are loaded into Java, you do not need to perform separate instrumentation and recompilation steps. However, you should compile your program with debugging information enabled (the -g command-line switch to javac); otherwise, Chicory uses the names arg0, arg1, … as the names of method arguments.

Chicory must be run in a version 7 (or later) JVM, but it is backward-compatible with older versions of Java code. Chicory can process class files from any version of Java.


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7.1.1 Chicory options

Chicory is invoked as follows:

java daikon.Chicory chicory-args classname args

where

java classname args

is a valid invocation of Java.

This section lists the optional command-line arguments to Chicory, which appear before the classname on the Chicory command line.


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7.1.1.1 Program points in Chicory output

This section lists options that control which program points appear in Chicory’s output.

--ppt-select-pattern=regexp

Only produce trace output for classes/procedures/program points whose names match the given regular expression. This option may be supplied multiple times, and may be used in conjunction with --ppt-omit-pattern.

When this switch is supplied, filtering occurs in the following way: for each program point, Chicory checks the fully qualified class name, the method name, and the the program point name against each regexp that was supplied. If any of these match, then the program point is included in the instrumentation.

Suppose that method bar is defined only in class C. Then to traces only bar, you could match the method name (in any class) with regular expression ‘bar$’, or you could match the program point name with ‘C\.bar\(’.

Using Linux shell syntax, you would execute

java daikon.Chicory --ppt-select-pattern='bar$' ...
java daikon.Chicory --ppt-select-pattern='C\.bar\(' ...

From the Windows command line, you would execute

java daikon.Chicory --ppt-select-pattern='bar$' ...
java daikon.Chicory --ppt-select-pattern='C\.bar\(' ...
--ppt-omit-pattern=regexp

Do not produce data trace output for classes/procedures/program points whose names match the given regular expression. This reduces the size of the data trace file and also may make the instrumented program run faster, since it need not output those variables.

This option works just like --ppt-select-pattern does, except that matching program points are excluded, not included.

The --ppt-omit-pattern argument may be supplied multiple times, in order to specify multiple omitting criteria. A program point is omitted if its fully qualified class, procedure name, or complete program point name matches one of the omitting criteria.

The --ppt-omit-pattern argument may be supplied multiple times, in order to specify multiple omitting criteria. A program point is omitted if its fully qualified class, fully qualified procedure name, or complete program point name exactly matches one of the omitting criteria. A regular expression matches if it matches any portion of the program point name. Note that currently only classes are matched, not each full program point name. Thus, either all of a class’s methods are traced, or none of them are.

Here are examples of how to avoid detecting invariants over various parts of your program.

--sample-start=sample-cnt

When this option is chosen, Chicory will record each program point until that program point has been executed sample-cnt times. Chicory will then begin sampling. Sampling starts at 10% and decreases by a factor of 10 each time another sample-cnt samples have been recorded. If sample-cnt is 0, then all calls will be recorded.

--boot-classes=regex

Chicory treats classes that match the regex as boot classes. Such classes are not instrumented.


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7.1.1.2 Variables in Chicory output

This section lists options that control which variables appear in Chicory’s output.

--nesting-depth=n

Depth to which to examine structure components (default 2). This parameter determines which variables the front end causes to be output at runtime. For instance, suppose that a program contained the following data structures and variables:

class A {
  int x;
  B b;
}
class B {
  int y;
  int z;
}
A myA;

class Link {
  int val;
  Link next;
}
Link myList;

Values whose value is undefined are not examined. For instance, if myA is null on a particular execution of a program point, then myA.b is not accessed on that execution regardless of the depth parameter. That variable appears in the .dtrace file, but its value is marked as nonsensical.

--omit-var=regex

Do not include variables whose name matches the regular expression. Variables will be omitted from each program point in which they appear.

--std-visibility

When this switch is on, Chicory will traverse exactly those fields that are visible from a given program point. For instance, only the public fields of class pack1.B will be included at a program point for class pack2.A whether or not pack1.B is instrumented. By default, Chicory outputs all fields in instrumented classes (even those that would not be accessible in Java code at the given program point) and outputs no fields from uninstrumented classes (even those that are accessible). When you supply --std-visibility, consider also supplying --purity-file to enrich the set of expressions in Daikon’s output.

--purity-file=pure-methods-file

File pure-methods-file lists the pure methods (sometimes called observer methods) in a Java program. Pure methods have no externally side effects, such as setting variables or producing output. For example, most implementations of the hashCode(), toString(), and equals() methods are pure.

For each variable, Chicory adds to the trace new fields that represent invoking each pure method on the variable. (Currently, Chicory does so only for pure methods that take no parameters, and obviously this mechanism is only useful for methods that return a value: a pure method that returns no value does nothing!)

Here is an example:

class Point {
  private int x, y;
  public int radiusSquared() {
    return x*x + y*y;
  }
}

If radiusSquared() has been specified as pure, then for each point p, Chicory will output the variables p.x, p.y, and p.radiusSquared(). Use of pure methods can improve the Daikon output, since they represent information that the programmer considered important but that is not necessarily stored in a variable.

Invoking a pure method at any time in an application should not change the application’s behavior. If a non-pure method is listed in a purity file, then application behavior can change. Chicory does not verify the purity of methods listed in the purity file.

The purity file lists a set of methods, one per line. The format of each method is given by the Sun JDK API:

The string is formatted as the method access modifiers, if any, followed by the method return type, followed by a space, followed by the class declaring the method, followed by a period, followed by the method name, followed by a parenthesized, comma-separated list of the method’s formal parameter types. If the method throws checked exceptions, the parameter list is followed by a space, followed by the word throws followed by a comma-separated list of the thrown exception types. For example:

public boolean java.lang.Object.equals(java.lang.Object)

The access modifiers are placed in canonical order as specified by "The Java Language Specification". This is public, protected or private first, and then other modifiers in the following order: abstract, static, final, synchronized native.

By convention, pure-methods-file has the suffix .pure. If pure-methods-file is specified as a relative (not absolute) file name, it is searched for in the configuration directory specified via --configs=directory, or in the current directory if no configuration directory is specified.

One way to create a .pure file is to run the Purity Analysis Kit (http://jppa.sourceforge.net/). If you supply the --daikon-purity-file when running the Purity Analysis Kit, it writes a file that can be supplied to Chicory.

--linked-lists

This boolean option (default: true) causes user-defined linked lists to be output as sequences, much like Java ‘List’s and arrays are. A user-defined data structure is considered to be a linked list if it has one instance field that is of its own type.


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7.1.1.3 Chicory miscellaneous options

This section lists all other Chicory options — that is, all options that do not control which program points and variables appear in Chicory’s output.

--help

Print a help message.

--debug

Produce debugging information. For other debugging options, run Chicory with the --help option.

--default-bcel

Chicory uses the Byte Code Engineering Library (BCEL) to instrument class files. Errors can occur if the application uses an incompatible version of BCEL. By default, Chicory identifies and loads its copy of BCEL when multiple copies of BCEL are in the classpath. It will also issue a warning if multiple copies of BCEL are in the classpath and the application version is not the first one. When this option is chosen, Chicory will simply use whatever version of BCEL is found on the classpath.

--dtrace-file=filename

Specifies the default name for the trace output (.dtrace) file. If this is not specified, then the value of the DTRACEFILE environment variable (at the time the instrumented program runs) is used. If that environment variable is not used, then the default is ./CLASSNAME.dtrace.

If the DTRACEAPPEND environment variable is set to any value, the .dtrace file will be appended to instead of overwritten. Compressed data trace files may not be appended to. In some cases you may find a single large data trace file more convenient; in other cases, a collection of smaller data trace files may give you more control over which subsets of runs to invoke Daikon on.

--comparability-file=filename

This option specifies a declaration file (see Declarations in Daikon Developer Manual) that contains comparability information. This information will be incorporated in the output of Chicory. Any variables not included in the comparability file will have their comparability set so that they are comparable to all other variables of the same type.

--output-dir=directory

Write the .dtrace trace output file to the specified directory. The default is the current directory.

--config-dir=directory

Chicory will use this location to search for configuration files. Currently, this only includes *.pure files.

--daikon

After creating a data trace (.dtrace) file, run Daikon on it. To specify arguments to Daikon use the --daikon-args option. Also see the --daikon-online option.

This option supplies Daikon with a single trace from one execution of your program. By contrast to this option (and --daikon-online), if you invoke Daikon from the command line, you can supply Daikon with as many trace files as you wish.

--daikon-online

This option is like --daikon, except that no .dtrace data trace file is produced. Instead, Chicory sends trace information over a socket to Daikon, which processes the information incrementally (“online”), as Chicory produces it.

Just like with the --daikon option, Daikon is only given a single trace from one execution of your program.

The Kvasir front end also supports online execution, via use of (normal or named) Linux pipes (see Online execution).

--daikon-args=arguments

Specifies arguments to be passed to Daikon if the --daikon or --daikon-online options are used.

--premain=path

Specifies the absolute pathname to the ChicoryPremain.jar file. Chicory requires this jar file in order to execute. By default Chicory looks for the jar file in the classpath and in $(DAIKONDIR)/java (where DAIKONDIR is an environment variable that points to the complete installation of Daikon).

Chicory can also use the daikon.jar file for this purpose. If it doesn’t find ChicoryPremain.jar above, it will use daikon.jar itself (if a file named daikon.jar appears in the classpath). If the Daikon jar file is not named daikon.jar, you can use this switch to specify its name. For example:

--premain=C:\lib\daikon-4.1.3.jar
--heap-size=max_heap

Specifies the maximum size, in bytes, of the memory allocation pool for the target program. Also applies to Daikon, if the --daikon command-line argument is given. The size is specified in the same manner as the --Xmx switch to java; for example: --heap-size=2048m.


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7.1.2 Static fields (global variables)

Chicory (Daikon’s front end for Java) outputs the values of static fields in the current class, but not in other classes. That means that Daikon cannot report properties over static fields in other classes, because it never sees their values. (By contrast, Kvasir (see Kvasir) supplies the values of C/C++ global variables to Daikon.)

If you need Daikon to include all static variables when processing each class, then ask the maintainers to add that feature to Chicory (or work with them to implement the enhancement). In the meanwhile, here are two workarounds.

  1. Add a static field whose type is the class containing the fields of interest. You don’t have to ever assign to the new field. A disadvantage of this approach is that it gives you properties over the global variables as observed by each class (which might be different).
  2. At the beginning and end of each method, add a call to a dummy method that has access to all the globals (via adding the field mentioned above). This produces a single formula that is valid for all global variables at all times.

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7.2 DynComp dynamic comparability (abstract type) analysis for Java

The DynComp dynamic comparability analysis tool performs dynamic type inference to group variables at each program point into comparability sets (see Program point declarations in Daikon Developer Manual for the numeric representation format of these sets). All variables in each comparability set belong to the same “abstract type” of data that the programmer likely intended to represent, which is a richer set of types than the few basic declared types (e.g., int, float) provided by the language. Consider the example below:

public class Year {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int year = 2005;
        int winterDays = 58;
        int summerDays = 307;
        compute(year, winterDays, summerDays);
    }

    public static int compute(int yr, int d1, int d2) {
        if (0 != yr % 4)
            return d1 + d2;
        else
            return d1 + d2 + 1;
    }
}

The three variables in main() all have the same Java representation type, int, but two of them hold related quantities (numbers of days), as can be determined by the fact that they interact when the program adds them, whereas the other contains a conceptually distinct quantity (a year). The abstract types “day” and “year” are both represented as int, but DynComp can differentiate them with its dynamic analysis. For example, DynComp can infer that winterDays and summerDays are comparable (belong to the same abstract type) because the program adds their values together within the compute() function.

Without comparability information, Daikon attempts to find invariants over all pairs (and sometimes triples) of variables present at every program point. This can lead to two negative consequences: First, it may take lots of time and memory to infer all of these invariants, especially when there are many global or derived variables present. Second, many of those invariants are true but meaningless because they relate variables which conceptually represent different types (e.g., an invariant such as winterDays < year is true but meaningless because days and years are not comparable).

To use DynComp, run your program as you normally would, but replace the java command with java daikon.DynComp. For instance, if you usually run

java mypackage.MyClass arg1 arg2 arg3

then instead you would run

java daikon.DynComp mypackage.MyClass arg1 arg2 arg3

This runs your program and creates the file MyClass.decls-DynComp in the current directory. DynComp also creates MyClass.txt-cset, which contains the same information and a further level of detail in an easier-to-read format. The .decls file may be passed to Chicory, as described in Using DynComp with Java programs.

java daikon.Chicory --comparability-file=MyClass.decls-DynComp \
     mypackage.MyClass arg1 arg2 arg3

See below for more options.

While you may run DynComp with the standard JDK, using the --no-jdk switch, you can obtain more accurate results by using a copy of the JDK that has been instrumented with DynComp. See Instrumenting the JDK with DynComp, below, for instructions.

This is part of a sample .decls file generated by running DynComp on the example above:

DECLARE
Year.compute(int, int, int):::ENTER
yr
int # isParam=true
int
3
d1
int # isParam=true
int
2
d2
int # isParam=true
int
2

DECLARE
Year.compute(int, int, int):::EXIT11
yr
int # isParam=true
int
3
d1
int # isParam=true
int
2
d2
int # isParam=true
int
2
return
int
int
2

The declaration file format is described in Program point declarations in Daikon Developer Manual.

DynComp creates two representations of the comparability information in the files foo.txt-cset and foo.txt-trace. In the cset file, DynComp outputs comparability sets as sets. The above .decls output corresponds to the following in cset:

Daikon Variable sets for Year.compute(I yr, I d1, I d2) enter
  [1] [daikon.chicory.ParameterInfo:d1]
  [1] [daikon.chicory.ParameterInfo:d2]
  [1] [daikon.chicory.ParameterInfo:yr]
Daikon Variable sets for Year.compute(I yr, I d1, I d2) exit
  [3] [daikon.chicory.ParameterInfo:d1, daikon.chicory.ParameterInfo:
       d2, daikon.chicory.ReturnInfo:return]
  [1] [daikon.chicory.ParameterInfo:yr]

In the trace file, DynComp outputs comparability sets as trees, structured such that each variable in the tree has interacted with its children. The lack of a parent-child relationship between two variables in a set does not imply anything about whether they interacted. The above .decls output corresponds to the following in trace:

Daikon Traced Tree for Year.compute(I yr, I d1, I d2) enter

daikon.chicory.ParameterInfo:d1

daikon.chicory.ParameterInfo:d2

daikon.chicory.ParameterInfo:yr


Daikon Traced Tree for Year.compute(I yr, I d1, I d2) exit

daikon.chicory.ParameterInfo:d2
--daikon.chicory.ParameterInfo:d1 ([Year:compute()-11])
--daikon.chicory.ReturnInfo:return ([Year:compute()-11])

daikon.chicory.ParameterInfo yr

The file here shows that d1, d2, and the return value of the compute method are in the same comparability set; this is correct, as they are all of the abstract type “days”. The variable yr is in its own comparability set; it has abstract type “year”, and so is not comparable to the other variables. In addition, the structure of the [d1, d2, return] set shows that at some point, d1 interacted with d2, and that d2 interacted with return. The absence of a d1 -- return edge does not imply that d1 and return never interacted directly.

In addition, non-root nodes in the trace trees can indicate a list of class names, method names, and line numbers at which values interacted, resulting in comparability between the preceding child node and its parent. In the above example, d1 interacted with d2 on line 11 of the compute method of the Year class.

Duplicate values in this list represent the results of separate calls to another method which each of the relevant variables. For example, if main had calls compute(year, summerDays, winterDays) and compute(year,schoolDays,breakDays), then for main we might see this output:

daikon.chicory.FieldInfo:summerDays
--daikon.chicory.FieldInfo:winterDays([Year:compute()-11])
--daikon.chicory.FieldInfo:schoolDays([Year:compute()-11, Year:compute()-11])
----daikon.chicory.FieldInfo:breakDays([Year:compute()-11])

Empty lists indicate that no non-assignment interactions occurred in the series of interactions connecting the two variables.

Elements of these lists are essentially parts of stack traces. The maximum number of stack trace levels displayed is set by --trace-line-depth, which is equal to 1 by default.

For these files, DynComp also has a --abridged-vars option that replaces text like daikon.chicory.ParameterInfo:d2 with text like Parameter d2 in the cset and trace files. It writes this instead of daikon.chicory.ThisObjInfo:this; and return instead of daikon.chicory.ReturnInfo:return. This option is off by default, but can be turned on with --abridged-vars.


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7.2.1 Instrumenting the JDK with DynComp

If you did not already do so when installing Daikon (see Complete installation), follow the instructions here to build an instrumented copy of the JDK. Use the following command in $DAIKONDIR:

make -C java dcomp_rt.jar

Make sure the JAVA_HOME environment variable is set to the directory containing your JDK. This command instruments the classes in the rt.jar file of the JDK, and creates a new file, dcomp_rt.jar, in the java directory.

On MacOSX, versions of the JDK prior to 7 were not organized in a manner similar to the Linux versions. Current versions of Daikon require JDK 7 (or newer); hence, this is no longer an issue on MacOSX. The following example is typical for an install of Java 1.7 on MacOSX:

export JAVA_HOME=/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/jdk1.7.0_45.jdk/Home

Building dcomp_rt requires 10-30 minutes to complete and uses 1024 MB of memory. Regular progress indicators are printed to standard output.

You can ignore warnings issued during the instrumentation process, so long as the make target itself completes normally.

There are a small number of methods in the JDK that DynComp is currently unable to instrument. The names of these methods will be printed at the end of instrumentation. This is not a problem unless your application calls these methods (directly or indirectly). If one of those methods is called, a ‘NoSuchMethodException’ will be generated when the call is attempted.

One final note: if you update your JDK in any way (such as a OS upgrade), you will need to rebuild dcomp_rt.jar.


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7.2.2 DynComp options

DynComp is invoked as follows:

java daikon.DynComp dyncomp-args classname args

where

java classname args

is a valid invocation of Java.

This section lists the optional command-line arguments to DynComp, which appear before the classname on the DynComp command line.

--verbose

Print information about the classes being processed.

--debug

Dump the instrumented classes to debug/bin.

--debug-dir

The directory in which to dump instrumented class files (only if --debug is specified). Defaults to debug in the current working directory.

--output-dir=dir

The directory in which to create output files. Defaults to the current working directory.

--decl-file=file

Output filename for .decls file suitable for input to Daikon. Defaults to target_program.decls-DynComp.

--no-cset-file

When this switch is on, output of the cset file is suppressed.

--compare-sets-file=file

Output filename for a more easily human-readable file summarizing comparability sets. The default behavior is to print to standard output. This switch has no effect if --no-cset-file is specified on the command line.

--trace-sets-file=file

Output filename for a human-readable file showing some of the interactions that occurred. Default behavior is to not create the file.

--trace-line-depth=n

Controls size of the stack displayed in tracing the interactions that occurred. Default behavior is to only display one element in the stack — that is, display at most the topmost function on the stack when the interaction occurred. This switch has no effect if --trace-sets-file is not specified, or is null.

--abridged-vars

When this switch is on, DynComp abridges the variables printed in the files specified by --compare-sets-file and --trace-sets-file. For example, DynComp with output ‘Field foo’ instead of ‘dyncomp.chicory.FieldInfo:MyClass.foo’. In particular, it replaces ‘dyncomp.chicory.ReturnInfo:return’ with ‘return’ and ‘dyncomp.chicory.ThisObjInfo:this’ with ‘this’.

--ppt-select-pattern=regex

Only emit program points that match regex. Specifically, a program point is considered to match regex if the fully qualified class name, the method name, or the program point name matches regex. The behavior of this switch is the same as in Chicory (see Program points in Chicory output).

This option can be specified multiple times, and may be used in conjunction with --ppt-omit-pattern. If a program point matches both a select pattern and an omit pattern, it is omitted.

--ppt-omit-pattern=regex

Suppress program points that match regex. Specifically, a program point is considered to match regex if the fully qualified class name, the method name, or the program point name matches regex. The behavior of this switch is the same as in Chicory (see Program points in Chicory output).

This option can be specified multiple times, any may be used in conjunction with --ppt-select-pattern. If a program point matches both a select pattern and an omit pattern, it is omitted.

--no-primitives

Don’t track primitives. When this switch is on, DynComp only tracks the comparability of object references; primitive values are ignored. Using this switch can greatly improve DynComp’s runtime if you are not interested in primitive values.

--no-jdk

When this switch is on, DynComp runs with an uninstrumented JDK, and the --rt-file switch is ignored.

--rt-file

Specifies the location of the instrumented JDK (see Instrumenting the JDK with DynComp). This option is rarely necessary, because if --rt-file is not specified, DynComp will search for a file named dcomp_rt.jar along the classpath, and in $DAIKONDIR/java. Both this file and the current classpath are placed on the boot classpath for DynComp’s execution.

--std-visibility

When this switch is on, DynComp traverses exactly those fields that are visible from a given program point. For an example, see Variables in Chicory output.

--nesting-depth=n

Depth to which to examine structure components (default 2). This parameter determines which variables the front end causes to be output at runtime. For an example, see Variables in Chicory output.


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7.2.3 Instrumentation of Object methods

DynComp is unable to directly instrument methods of the class Object, such as clone and equals. DynComp uses a few tricks, described here in brief, to track comparability in these methods.

Calls such as o1.equals(o2) are replaced with calls to a static method in DynComp, dcomp_equals(o1, o2). This static method dynamically determines whether or not o1 is an instance of a class that has been instrumented by DynComp; every such class implements the interface DCompInstrumented. If so, it attempts to invoke the instrumented version of the equals method for o1. If not, or if o1 has not overridden the equals method from Object, then no instrumented version exists, so the uninstrumented version is invoked.

In either case, the references o1 and o2 are considered to be comparable. In a future release, we will provide a command-line switch to customize this behavior.

The clone method operates in a similar manner, choosing dynamically to invoke the instrumented method or the uninstrumented method. In the case of clone, the methods are invoked via reflection. In either case, the object being cloned and the resulting clone are made comparable to each other. Again, we will provide a switch to customize this behavior in a future release.


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7.2.4 Known bugs and limitations


Next: , Previous: DynComp for Java, Up: Front ends (instrumentation)   [Contents][Index]

7.3 C/C++ front end Kvasir

Daikon’s front end for C and C++, named Kvasir, executes C and C++ programs and creates data trace (.dtrace) files of variables and their values by examining the operation of the binary at runtime. Kvasir is named after the Norse god of knowledge and beet juice. It is built upon the Fjalar dynamic analysis framework for C and C++ programs (available at http://pag.csail.mit.edu/fjalar/, but already included in the Daikon distribution).

To use Kvasir, first compile your program using the DWARF-2 debugging format (e.g., supply the -gdwarf-2 option to gcc) and without optimizations (e.g., supply the -O0 option to gcc). Then, prefix your command line by kvasir-dtrace. For example, if you normally run your program with the command

./program -option input.file

then instead use the command

kvasir-dtrace ./program -option input.file

to run your program and create a data trace file daikon-output/program.dtrace, which can be fed as input into Daikon. You can perform this step multiple times to create multiple data trace files for Daikon. You can also run Daikon without creating an intermediate data trace file; see Online execution.

For information about installing Kvasir, see Installing Kvasir. Kvasir only works under Linux running on an x86 or x86-64 processor; for full details, see Kvasir limitations. For information about how to create an instrumenter for C that works on non-Linux or non-x86 platforms, see Instrumenting C programs in Daikon Developer Manual.


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7.3.1 Using Kvasir

Before using Kvasir, you must compile your program compile and link your program normally, with two exceptions:

In the second step of using Kvasir, run your program as you normally would, but prepend the command kvasir-dtrace to the beginning. For instance, if you normally run your program with the command

./myprogram -option input.file

just say

kvasir-dtrace ./myprogram -option input.file

As well as running your program (more slowly than usual), this command also creates a directory daikon-output in the current directory containing a program.dtrace file suitable as input to Daikon.

Kvasir’s first argument, the program name, should be given as a pathname, as shown above. If you usually just give a program name that is not in the current directory but is found in your path, you may need to modify your command to specify a pathname. For example:

kvasir-dtrace `which myprogram` -option input.file

You may supply options to Kvasir before the argument that is the name of your program (see Kvasir options).


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7.3.2 Kvasir options

To see a complete list of options, run this command: kvasir-dtrace --help

Output file format:

--decls-file=filename

Write the .decls file listing the names of functions and variables (called declarations) to the specified file name. This forces Kvasir to generate separate .decls and .dtrace files instead of outputting everything to the .dtrace file, which is the default behavior. If only a .dtrace file is created (default behavior), then it contains both variable declarations and a trace of values. If separate .decls and .dtrace files are created, then the .decls file contains declarations and the .dtrace file contains the trace of values.

--decls-only

Exit after writing the .decls file; don’t run the program or generate trace information. Since the .decls file is the same for any run of a program, it can be generated once and then reused on later runs, as long as no new program points are added and each program point has the same set of variables.

--dtrace-file=filename

Write the .dtrace trace file to the specified file name. The default is daikon-output/programname.dtrace, where programname is the name of the program. A filename of - may be used to specify the standard output; in this case, the regular standard output of the program will be redirected back to the terminal (/dev/tty), to avoid intermixing it with the trace output. If the given filename ends in .gz, then --dtrace-gzip is enabled and the .dtrace file will be compressed.

--dtrace-no-decs

By default, the .dtrace file contains both a list of variable declarations followed by a trace of variable values (see File formats in Daikon Developer Manual). If this option is used, then variable declarations are not outputted in the .dtrace file. This option is equivalent to --decls-file=/dev/null, except that it runs faster. This is useful when you want to generate one copy of the declarations in the .decls file using --decls-only, generate many .dtrace files from different program runs, and then feed 1 .decls and several .dtrace files into Daikon.

--dtrace-append

Append new trace information to the end of an existing .dtrace file. The default is to overwrite a preexisting .dtrace file. When this option is used, no declaration information is written because it is assumed that the existing .dtrace file already contains all declarations (Daikon does not accept duplicate declarations).

--dtrace-gzip

Compress trace information with the gzip program before writing it to the .dtrace file. You must have the gzip program available.

--output-fifo

Create the output .dtrace file as a FIFO (also known as a named pipe). Kvasir will then open first the .decls FIFO and then the .dtrace FIFO, blocking until another program (such as Daikon) reads from them. Using FIFO files for the output of Kvasir avoids the need for large trace files, but FIFO files are not supported by some file systems, including the Andrew File System (AFS).

--program-stdout=filename
--program-stderr=filename

Redirect the standard output (respectively, standard error) stream of the program being traced to the specified path. By default, the standard output and standard error streams will be left pointing to the same locations specified by the shell, except that if --dtrace-file=- is specified, then the default behavior is as if --program-stdout=/dev/tty were specified, since mixing the program’s output and Kvasir’s trace output is not advisable. If the same filename is given for both options, the streams will be interleaved in the same way as if by the Bourne shell construction 2>&1.

Also, as in the shell, filename can be an ampersand followed by an integer, to redirect to a numbered file descriptor. For instance, to redirect the program’s standard output and error, and Kvasir’s standard error, to a single file, you can say --program-stdout='&2' --program-stderr='&2' 2>filename.

Selective program point and variable tracing:

--ppt-list-file=filename
--var-list-file=filename

Trace only the program points (respectively, variables) listed in the given file. Other program points (respectively variables) will be omitted from the .decls and .dtrace files. A convenient way to produce such files is by editing the output produced by the --dump-ppt-file (respectively, --dump-var-file) option described below. (See Tracing only part of a program section for detailed instructions on using these options.)

--dump-ppt-file=filename
--dump-var-file=filename

Print a list of all the program points (respectively all the variables) in the program to the specified file. An edited version of this file can then be used with the --ppt-list-file (respectively --var-list-file) option. (See Tracing only part of a program section for detailed instructions on using these options.) Note: Do not use these options with the --with-dyncomp option because the behavior is undefined. Running Kvasir with these options will initialize but not actually execute the target program, so the dynamic comparability analysis cannot be performed in the first place.

--ignore-globals

Omit any global or static variables from the .decls and .dtrace files. Leaving these out can significantly improve Kvasir and Daikon’s performance, at the expense of missing properties involving them. The default is to generate trace information for global and static variables.

--ignore-static-vars

Omit any static variables but generate trace information for global variables in the .decls and .dtrace files.

--all-static-vars

Output all static variables at all program points in the .decls and .dtrace files. By default, file-static variables are only outputted at program points for functions that are defined in the same file (compilation unit) as the variable, and static variables declared within a particular function are only outputted at program points for that function. These heuristics decrease clutter in the output without greatly reducing precision because functions have no easy way of modifying variables that are not in-scope, so it is often not useful to output those variables. This option turns off these heuristics and always outputs static variables at all program points.

Other options affecting the amount of output Kvasir produces:

--object-ppts

Enables printing of object program points for C/C++ structs and C++ classes. See Program points for more information.

--flatten-arrays

This option forces the flattening of statically-sized arrays into separate variables, one for each element. For example, an array foo of size 3 would be flattened into 3 variables: foo[0], foo[1], foo[2]. By default, Kvasir flattens statically-sized arrays only after it has already exhausted the one level of sequences that Daikon allows in the .dtrace output format (e.g. an array of structs where each struct contains a statically-sized array).

--array-length-limit=N

Only visit at most the first N elements of all arrays. This can improve performance at the expense of losing coverage; it is often useful for tracing selected parts of programs that use extremely large arrays or memory buffers.

--output-struct-vars

This option forces Kvasir to output .decls and .dtrace entries for struct variables. By default, Kvasir ignores struct variables because there is really no value that can be meaningfully associated with these variables. However, some tools require struct variables to be outputted, so we have included this option. Struct variables are denoted by a ‘# isStruct=true’ annotation in their declarations.

--nesting-depth=N

For recursively-defined structures (structs or classes with members that are structs or classes or pointers to structs or classes of any type), N (an integer between 0 and 100) specifies approximately how many levels of pointers to dereference. This is useful for controlling the output of complex data structures with many references to other structures. The default is 2.

--struct-depth=N

For recursively-defined structures (structs or classes with members that are pointers to the same type of struct or class), N (an integer between 0 and 100) specifies approximately how many levels of pointers to dereference. This is useful for controlling the output of linked lists and trees. The default is 4. If you are trying to traverse deep into data structures, try adjusting the --struct-depth and --total-depth options until Kvasir traverses deep enough to reach the desired variables.

Pointer type disambiguation:

--disambig-file=filename

Specifies the name of the pointer type disambiguation file (see Pointer type disambiguation). If this file exists, Kvasir uses it to make decisions about how to output the referents of pointer variables. If the file does not exist, then Kvasir creates it. This file may then be edited and used on subsequent runs. This option initializes but does not fully execute the target program (unless it is run with the --smart-disambig option).

--disambig

Tells Kvasir to create or read pointer type disambiguation (see Pointer type disambiguation) with the default filename, which is myprog.disambig in the same directory as the target program, where myprog is the name of the target program. This is equivalent to --disambig-file=myprog.disambig.

--smart-disambig

This option should be used in addition to either the --disambig or --disambig-file options (it does nothing by itself). If the .disambig file specified by the option does not exist, then Kvasir executes the target program, observes whether each pointer refers to either one element or an array of elements, and creates a disambiguation file that contains suggestions for the disambiguation types of each pointer variable. This potentially provides more accuracy than using either the --disambig or --disambig-file options alone, but at the expense of a longer run time. (If the .disambig file already exists, then this option provides no extra functionality.)

--func-disambig-ptrs

By default, Kvasir treats all pointers as arrays when outputting their contents. This option forces Kvasir to treat function parameters and return values that are pointers as pointing to single values. However, all pointers nested inside of data structures pointed-to by parameters and return values are still treated as arrays. This is useful for outputting richer data information for functions that pass parameters or return values via pointers, which happens often in practice.

--disambig-ptrs

By default, Kvasir treats all pointers as arrays when outputting their contents. This option forces Kvasir to treat all pointers as pointing to single values. This is useful when tracing nested structures with lots of pointer fields which all refer to one element.

DynComp for C/C++:

--with-dyncomp

Run Kvasir with the DynComp dynamic comparability analysis tool to determine which variables have the same abstract type. Variable comparability information can improve the performance of Daikon and allow it to generate a more focused and relevant set of invariants. Because it is not available until the end of execution, comparability information is always written to a separate .decls file (in the format specified in the Program point declarations in Daikon Developer Manual), as if the --decls-file option had been specified (--decls-file can still be used to control the name of the file). This file must be provided to Daikon along with the .dtrace file. This option may also be used with --decls-only to only generate a .decls file without a .dtrace.

--no-dyncomp-gc

By default, DynComp runs with a garbage collector for the tag metadata that it uses, but this can cause your program to slow down if it runs too often. This option turns off the garbage collector. This is not recommended for long program runs, because without the garbage collector, it will likely run out of memory.

--gc-num-tags=N

The DynComp garbage collector runs once after every 10,000,000 tags have been assigned. This option tells the garbage collector to run once after every N tags have been assigned. Making the value of N larger allows your program to run faster (because the garbage collector runs less frequently), but may cause your program to run out of memory as well. Making the value of N too small may cause your program to never terminate if N is smaller than the total number of tags that your program uses in steady state. You will probably need to experiment with tweaking this value in order to get DynComp to work properly.

--dyncomp-fast-mode

This option applies an approximation for handling literal values which greatly speeds up the performance of DynComp and drastically lowers its memory usage, but at the expense of a slight loss in precision of the generated comparability sets. If you cannot get DynComp to successfully run on a large program, even after tweaking --gc-num-vars, try turning on this option.

--dyncomp-detailed-mode

This option runs a more detailed (but more time- and space-intensive) algorithm for tracking variable comparability. It takes O(n^2) time and space, whereas the default algorithm takes roughly O(n) time and space. However, it can produce more precise results. Despite its name, this mode can be used together with --dyncomp-fast-mode to run the more precise algorithm but still use an approximation for handling literal values. (This mode is still experimental and not well-tested yet.)

--separate-entry-exit-comp

The default behavior for DynComp is to generate the same comparability numbers for Daikon variables at each pair of function entrance and exit program points. If this option is used, then DynComp keeps track of comparability separately for function entrances and exits, which can lead to more accurate results, but sometimes generates output .decls files that Daikon cannot accept.

--dyncomp-dataflow-only

When DynComp is operating in this mode, no binary operations qualify as interactions between values. Thus, DynComp only tracks dataflow.

--dyncomp-dataflow-comp

When DynComp is operating in this mode, the only binary operations that qualify as interactions are comparisons between values (e.g., x <= y or x != y).

--dyncomp-units

When DynComp is operating in this mode, the only binary operations that qualify as interactions are comparisons, addition, subtraction. This ensures that the variables that DynComp groups together into one set all have the same units (e.g., physics units).

Debugging:

--xml-output-file=filename

Outputs a representation of data structures, functions, and variables in the target program to an XML file in order to aid in debugging. These are all the entities that Kvasir tracks for a particular run of a target program, so if you do not see an entity in this XML file, then you should either adjust command-line options or contact us with a bug report.

--with-gdb

This pauses the program’s execution in an infinite loop during initialization. You can attach a debugger such as gdb to the running process by running gdb on inst/lib/valgrind/x86-linux/fjalar under the Kvasir directory and using the attach command.

--kvasir-debug
--fjalar-debug
--dyncomp-debug

Enable progress messages meant for debugging problems with Kvasir, Fjalar, or DynComp. By default, they are disabled. This option is intended mainly for Kvasir’s developers.

--no-path-compression
--no-var-leader
--no-val-leader

These disable optimizations to DynComp’s abstract type inference implementation. These are disabled by default. These options are intended mainly for DynComp developers.

--dyncomp-trace
--dyncomp-trace-merge
-- dyncomp-print-inc

Enables trace messages to be output to stderr. These are disabled by default. These options are intended mainly for DynComp developers.


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7.3.3 DynComp dynamic comparability (abstract type) analysis for C/C++

Kvasir comes with the DynComp dynamic comparability analysis tool, which performs dynamic type inference to group variables at each program point into comparability sets. (See Program point declarations in Daikon Developer Manual for the numeric representation format of these sets). All variables in each comparability set belong to the same “abstract type” of data that the programmer likely intended to represent, which is a richer set of types than the few basic declared types (e.g., int, float) provided by the language. Consider the example below:

int main() {
  int year = 2005;
  int winterDays = 58;
  int summerDays = 307;
  compute(year, winterDays, summerDays);
}

int compute(int yr, int d1, int d2) {
  if (yr % 4)
    return d1 + d2;
  else
    return d1 + d2 + 1;
}

The three variables in main() all have the same C representation type, int, but two of them hold related quantities (numbers of days), as can be determined by the fact that they interact when the program adds them, whereas the other contains a conceptually distinct quantity (a year). The abstract types “day” and “year” are both represented as int, but DynComp can differentiate them with its dynamic analysis. For example, DynComp can infer that winterDays and summerDays are comparable (belong to the same abstract type) because the program adds their values together within the compute() function.

Without comparability information, Daikon attempts to find invariants over all pairs (and sometimes triples) of variables present at every program point. This can lead to two negative consequences: First, it may take lots of time and memory to infer all of these invariants, especially when there are many global or derived variables present. Second, many of those invariants are true but meaningless because they relate variables which conceptually represent different types (e.g., an invariant such as winterDays < year is true but meaningless because days and years are not comparable).

Use the --with-dyncomp option to run Kvasir with DynComp to generate a .decls file with comparability information along with the usual value trace in the .dtrace file. Using --decls-only will only generate the .decls file without the extra slowdown of writing the .dtrace file to disk (however, because DynComp must execute the entire program to perform its analysis, the only time saved is I/O time). Other DynComp options are listed in the Kvasir options section. Running Kvasir with DynComp takes more memory and longer time than running Kvasir alone, but remember that DynComp only needs to be run once to generate a .decls file with comparability information. That one file can be passed into Daikon along with many different .dtrace files generated during subsequent Kvasir runs without DynComp.

Here is part of the .decls file generated by running Kvasir with DynComp on the above example:

DECLARE
..compute():::ENTER
yr
int # isParam=true
int
1
d1
int # isParam=true
int
2
d2
int # isParam=true
int
2

DECLARE
..compute():::EXIT0
yr
int # isParam=true
int
1
d1
int # isParam=true
int
2
d2
int # isParam=true
int
2
return
int
int
2

The abstract type of “year” (and its corresponding comparability set) is represented by the number 1 while the abstract type of “day” is represented by the number 2. DynComp places two variables in the same comparability set when their values interact via program operations such as arithmetic or assignment. Because the parameters d1 and d2 were added together, DynComp inferred that those variables were somehow related and put them in the same comparability set. The return value is also related to d1 and d2 because it is the result of the addition operation. Notice that yr never interacts with any other variables, so DynComp places it into its own comparability set. With this comparability information, Daikon will never attempt to find invariants between yr and d1/d2, which both saves time and memory and eliminates meaningless invariants (the savings are minuscule in this trivial example, but they can be rather dramatic in larger examples).


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7.3.4 Tracing only part of a program

When Kvasir is run on a target program of significant size, often times too much output is generated, which causes an enormous performance slowdown of both Kvasir outputting the trace file and also Daikon trying to process the trace file. It is often desirable to only trace a specific portion of the target program, program points and variables that are of interest for a particular invariant detection application. For instance, one may only be interested in tracking changes in a particular global data structure during calls to a specific set of functions (program points), and thus have no need for information about any other program points or variables in the trace file. The --ppt-list-file and --var-list-file options can be used to achieve such selective tracing.

The program point list file (abbreviated as ppt-list-file) consists of a newline-separated list of names of functions that the user wants Kvasir to trace. Every name corresponds to both the entrance (:::ENTER) and exit (:::EXIT) program points for that function and is printed out in the exact same format that Kvasir uses for that function in the trace file. (See Using Kvasir for the program point naming scheme.) Here is an example of a ppt-list-file:

FunctionNamesTest.cpp.staticFoo(int, int)
..firstFileFunction(int)
..main()
second_file.cpp.staticFoo(int, int)
..secondFileFunction()

It is very important to follow this format in the ppt-list-file because Kvasir performs string comparisons to determine which program points to trace. Thus, it is often easier to have Kvasir generate a ppt-list-file file that contains a list of all program points in a target program by using the --dump-ppt-file option, and then either comment out (by using the ‘#’ comment character at the beginning of the line) or delete lines in that file for program points not to be traced or create a new ppt-list-file using the names in the Kvasir-generated file. This prevents typos and the tedium of manually typing up program point names. In fact, the ppt-list-file presented in the above example was generated from a C++ test program named FunctionNamesTest by using the following command:

kvasir-dtrace --dump-ppt-file=FunctionNamesTest.ppts \
              ./FunctionNamesTest

That file represents all the program points that Kvasir would normally trace. If the user wanted to only trace the main() function, he could comment out all other lines by placing a single ‘#’ character at the beginning of each line to be commented out, as demonstrated here:

#FunctionNamesTest.cpp.staticFoo(int, int)
#..firstFileFunction(int)
..main()
#second_file.cpp.staticFoo(int, int)
#..secondFileFunction()

When running Kvasir with the --ppt-list-file option using this as the ppt-list-file, Kvasir only stops the execution of the target program at the entrance and exit of main() in order to output values to the .dtrace file. In order to reduce the file size, when running Kvasir with the --ppt-list-file option, the .decls file only contains program point declarations for those listed in the ppt-list-file (..main():::ENTER and ..main():::EXIT in this case) because no other declarations are necessary.

The variable list file (abbreviated as var-list-file) contains all of the variables that the user wants Kvasir to output. There is one section for global variables and a section for variables associated with each function (formal parameters and return values). Again, the best way to create a var-list-file is to have Kvasir generate a file with all variables using the --dump-var-file option and then modifying that file for one’s particular needs by either deleting or commenting out lines (again using the ‘#’ comment character). For example, executing

kvasir-dtrace --dump-var-file=FunctionNamesTest.vars \
              ./FunctionNamesTest

will generate the following var-list-file named FunctionNamesTest.vars:

----SECTION----
globals
/globalIntArray
/globalIntArray[]
/anotherGlobalIntArray
/anotherGlobalIntArray[]


----SECTION----
FunctionNamesTest.cpp.staticFoo()
x
y


----SECTION----
..firstFileFunction(int)
blah


----SECTION----
..main()
argc
argv
argv[]
return


----SECTION----
second_file.cpp.staticFoo()
x
y


----SECTION----
..secondFileFunction()

The file format is straightforward. Each section is marked by a special string ‘----SECTION----’ on a line by itself followed immediately by a line that either denotes the program point name (formatted like how it appears in the .decls and .dtrace files) or the special string ‘globals’. This is followed by a newline-delimited list of all variables to be outputted for that particular program point. Global variables listed in the globals section are outputted for all program points. Additional global variables to be outputted for a particular program point can be specified in the corresponding section entry. For clarity, one or more blank lines should separate neighboring sections, although the ‘----SECTION----’ string literal on a line by itself is the only required delimiter. If an entire section is missing, then no variables for that program point (or no global variables, if it is the special globals section) are traced.

The variables listed in this file are written exactly as they appear in the .decls and .dtrace file. (See Using Kvasir section for the variable naming scheme.) In the program that generated the output for the above example, int* globalIntArray is a global integer pointer variable. For that variable, Kvasir generates two Daikon variables: /globalIntArray to represent the hashcode pointer value, and /globalIntArray[] to represent the array of integers referred-to by that pointer. The latter is a derived-variable that can be thought of as the child of /globalIntArray. If the entry for /globalIntArray is commented-out or missing, then Kvasir will not output any values for /globalIntArray or for any of its children, which in this case is /globalIntArray[]. If a struct or struct pointer variable is commented-out or missing, then none of its members are traced. Thus, a general rule about variable entries in the var-list-file is that if a parent variable is not present, then neither it nor its children are traced.

record
record->entries[1]
record->entries[1]->list
record->entries[1]->list->head
record->entries[1]->list->head->magic

For example, if you wanted to trace the value of the magic field nested deep within several layers of structs and arrays, it would not be enough to merely list this variable in the var-list-file. You would need to list all variables that are the parents of this one, as indicated by their names. This can be easily accomplished by creating a file with --dump-var-file and cutting out variable entries, taking care to not cut out entries that are the parents of entries that you want to trace.

In order to limit both the number of program points traced as well as the variables traced at those program points, the user can run Kvasir with both the --ppt-list-file and --var-list-file options with the appropriate ppt-list-file and var-list-file, respectively. The var-list-file only needs to contain a section for global variables and sections for all program points to be traced because variable listings for program points not to be traced are irrelevant (their presence in the var-list-file does not affect correctness but does cause an unnecessary performance and memory inefficiency).

If the --dump-var-file option is used in conjunction with the --ppt-list-file option, then the only sections generated in the var-list-file will be the global section and sections for all program points explicitly mentioned in the ppt-list-file. This is helpful for generating a smaller var-list-file for use with an already-existent ppt-list-file.


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7.3.5 Pointer type disambiguation

Kvasir permits users (or external analyses) to specify whether pointers refer to arrays or to single values, and optionally, to specify the type of a pointer (see Pointer type coercion). For example, in

void sum(int* array, int* result) { ... }  // definition of "sum"
...
int a[40];
int total;
...
sum(a, &total);        // use of "sum"

the first pointer parameter refers to an array while the second refers to a single value. Kvasir (and Daikon) should treat these values differently. For instance, *array is better printed as array[], an array of integers, and result[] isn’t a sensible array at all, even though in C result[0] is semantically identical to *result. By default, Kvasir treats all pointers as referencing arrays. For instance, it would print result[] rather than result[0] and would indicate that the length of array result[] is always 1. In order to improve the formatting of Daikon’s output (and to speed it up), you can indicate to Kvasir that certain pointers refer to single elements rather than to arrays. For an example, see Pointer type disambiguation example.

Information about whether each pointer refers to an array or a single element can be specified in a .disambig file that resides in the same directory as the target program (by default). The --disambig option instructs Kvasir to read this file if it exists. (If it does not exist, Kvasir produces the file automatically and, if invoked along with the --smart-disambig option, heuristically infers whether each pointer variable refers to single or multiple elements. Thus, users can edit this file for use on subsequent runs rather than having to create it from scratch.) The .disambig file lists all the program points and user-defined types, and under each, lists certain types of variables along with their custom disambiguation types as shown below. The list of disambiguation options is:

  1. For variables of type char and unsigned char:
    1. 'I': an integer, signed for char and unsigned for unsigned char. (Default)
    2. 'C': a single character, output as a string.
  2. For pointers to (or arrays of) char and unsigned char:
    1. 'S': a string, possibly zero-terminated. (Default)
    2. 'C': a single character, output as a string.
    3. 'A': an array of integers.
    4. 'P': a single integer.
  3. For pointers to (or arrays of) all other variable types (if invoked along with --smart-disambig, Kvasir automatically infers a default 'A' or 'P' for each variable during the generation of a .disambig file):
    1. 'A': an array. (Default) (For an array of structs, an array will be output for each scalar field of the struct. Aggregate children (arrays, other structs) will not be output.)
    2. 'P': a pointer to a single element. (For a pointer to a struct, each field will be output as a single instance, and child aggregate types will be output recursively. This extra information obtained from struct pointers is a powerful consequence of pointer type disambiguation. This will be the default if the --disambig-ptrs option is used.)

The .disambig file that Kvasir creates contains a section for each function, which can be used to disambiguate parameter variables visible at that function’s entrance program point and parameter and return value variables visible at that function’s exit program point. It also contains a section for every user-defined struct/class, which can be used to disambiguate member variables of that struct/class. Disambiguation information entered here will apply to all instances of a struct/class of that type, at all program points. There is also a section called “globals”, which disambiguates global variables which are output at every program point. The entries in the .disambig file may appear in any order, and whole entries or individual variables within a section may be omitted. In this case, Kvasir will retain their default values.


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7.3.5.1 Pointer type coercion

In addition to specifying whether a particular pointer refers to one element or to an array of elements, the user can also specify what type of data a pointer refers to. This type coercion acts like an explicit type cast in C, except that it only works on struct/class types and not on primitive types. This feature is useful for traversing inside of data structures with generic void* pointer fields. Another use is to cast a pointer from one that refers to a “super class” to one that refers to a “sub class”. This structural equivalence pattern is often found in C programs that emulate object orientation. To coerce a pointer to a particular type, simply write the name of the struct type after the disambiguation letter (e.g., A, P, S, C, I) in the .disambig file:

----SECTION----
function: ..view_foo_and_bar()
f
P foo
b
P bar

Without the type coercion, Kvasir cannot print out anything except for a hashcode for the two void* parameters of this function:

void view_foo_and_bar(void* f, void* b);

With type coercion, though, Kvasir treats f as a foo* and b as bar* and can traverse inside of them. Of course, if those are not the true runtime types of the variables, then Kvasir’s output will be meaningless.

Due to the use of typedefs, there may be more than one name for a particular struct type. The exact name that you need to write in the .disambig file is the one that appears in that file after the usertype prefix. Note that if a struct does not have any pointer fields, then there will be no usertype section for it in the .disambig file. In that case, try different names for the struct if necessary until Kvasir accepts the name (names are all one word long; you will never have to write struct foo). There should only be at most a few choices to make. If the coercion if successful, Kvasir prints out a message in the following form while it is processing the .disambig file:

.disambig: Coerced variable f into type 'foo'
.disambig: Coerced variable b into type 'bar'

One more caveat about type coercion is that you can currently only coerce pointers into types that at least one variable in the program (e.g., globals, function parameters, struct fields) belongs to. It is not enough to merely declare a struct type in your source code; you must have a variable of that type somewhere in your program. This is a limitation of the current implementation, but it should not matter most of the time because programs rarely have struct declarations with no variables that belong to that type. If you encounter this problem, you can simply create a global variable of a certain type to make type coercion work.


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7.3.5.2 Pointer type disambiguation example

This example demonstrates the power of pointer type disambiguation in creating more accurate Daikon output. Consider this file:

struct record {
  char* name;     // Initialize to: "Daikon User"
  int numbers[5]; // Initialize to: {5, 4, 3, 2, 1}
};

void foo(struct record* bar) {
  int i;
  for (i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
    bar->numbers[i] = (5 - i);
  }
}

int main() {
  char* myName = "Daikon User";
  struct record baz;
  baz.name = myName;
  foo(&baz);
}

In foo(), bar is a pointer to a record struct. By inspection, it is evident that in this program, bar only refers to one element: &baz within main. However, by default, Kvasir assumes that bar is an array of record structs since a C pointer contains no information about how many elements it refers to. Because Kvasir must output bar as an array and bar->numbers is an array of integers, it “flattens” bar->numbers into 5 separate arrays named bar->numbers[0] through bar->numbers[4] and creates fairly verbose output. This is a direct consequence of the fact that Daikon can only handle one layer of sequences (it cannot handle arrays within arrays, i.e., multidimensional arrays).

Here is part of the Daikon output for this program:

======================================================================
..foo():::ENTER
bar has only one value
bar[].name == [Daikon User]
bar[].name elements == "Daikon User"
======================================================================
..foo():::EXIT
size(bar[]).numbers[0] == size(bar[]).numbers[0][0]
size(bar[]).numbers[0] == size(bar[]).numbers[1]
size(bar[]).numbers[0] == size(bar[]).numbers[1][0]
size(bar[]).numbers[0] == size(bar[]).numbers[2]
size(bar[]).numbers[0] == size(bar[]).numbers[2][0]
size(bar[]).numbers[0] == size(bar[]).numbers[3]
size(bar[]).numbers[0] == size(bar[]).numbers[3][0]
size(bar[]).numbers[0] == size(bar[]).numbers[4]
size(bar[]).numbers[0] == size(bar[]).numbers[4][0]
bar[].name == [Daikon User]
bar[].name elements == "Daikon User"
bar[].numbers[0] contains no nulls and has only one value, of length 1
bar[].numbers[0] elements has only one value
bar[].numbers[0][0] == [5]
bar[].numbers[0][0] elements == 5
bar[].numbers[1] contains no nulls and has only one value, of length 1
bar[].numbers[1] elements has only one value
bar[].numbers[1][0] == [4]
bar[].numbers[1][0] elements == 4
bar[].numbers[2] contains no nulls and has only one value, of length 1
bar[].numbers[2] elements has only one value
bar[].numbers[2][0] == [3]
bar[].numbers[2][0] elements == 3
bar[].numbers[3] contains no nulls and has only one value, of length 1
bar[].numbers[3] elements has only one value
bar[].numbers[3][0] == [2]
bar[].numbers[3][0] elements == 2
bar[].numbers[4] contains no nulls and has only one value, of length 1
bar[].numbers[4] elements has only one value
bar[].numbers[4][0] == [1]
bar[].numbers[4][0] elements == 1
size(bar[]).numbers[0] == 1
bar[].numbers[4][0] elements == size(bar[]).numbers[0]
size(bar[]).numbers[0] in bar[].numbers[4][0]

This is a bit verbose due to the fact that Kvasir treats bar like an array by default when it actually only points to one element. However, by running Kvasir with the --disambig option, we create the myprog.disambig file, which we can then edit and feed back to Kvasir to change how the pointer is treated. (We run Kvasir twice on the same program, but we edit the .disambig file in between the runs.)

kvasir-dtrace ...options... --disambig --smart-disambig myprog

This creates the myprog.disambig file. It contains, at the top:

----SECTION----
function: ..foo()
bar
P

This means that at the program points corresponding to the entry and exit of foo(), the variable bar is treated as a ‘Pointer’ type. Since we have used the --smart-disambig option, Kvasir automatically inferred Pointer instead of Array for bar because it observed that bar only pointed to one element during the execution of the target program which generated the .disambig file. This heuristic allows users to use .disambig files more effectively with less manual editing. Without --smart-disambig, Kvasir does not execute the program to make such inferences, which allows .disambig files to be generated faster, but leaves the default disambiguation types for all entries (in this case, bar would have the default array type of 'A').

Then, running Kvasir again with the --disambig option causes Kvasir to open the existing myprog.disambig file, read the definitions, and alter the output accordingly:

kvasir-dtrace ...options... --disambig myprog

This tells Kvasir to output bar as a ‘Pointer’ to a single element, which in turn causes Daikon to generate a much more concise set of invariants. Notice that bar->numbers no longer has to be “flattened” because bar is now a pointer to one struct, so Daikon can recognize bar->numbers as a single-dimensional array (Daikon uses a Java-like syntax, replacing the arrow ‘->’ symbol with a dot, so it actually outputs bar.numbers).

======================================================================
..foo():::ENTER
bar has only one value
bar.name == "Daikon User"
======================================================================
..foo():::EXIT
bar.name == "Daikon User"
bar.numbers has only one value
bar.numbers[] == [5, 4, 3, 2, 1]
size(bar.numbers[]) == 5
bar.name == orig(bar.name)
size(bar.numbers[]) in bar.numbers[]
size(bar.numbers[])-1 in bar.numbers[]

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7.3.5.3 Using pointer type disambiguation with partial program tracing

It is possible to use pointer type disambiguation while only tracing selected program points and/or variables in a target program, combining the functionality described in the Pointer type disambiguation and Tracing only part of a program sections. This section describes the interaction of the ppt-list-file, var-list-file, and .disambig files.

The interaction between selective program point tracing (via the ppt-list-file) and pointer type disambiguation is fairly straightforward: If the user creates a .disambig file while running Kvasir with a ppt-list-file that only specifies certain program points, the generated .disambig file will only contain sections for those program points (as well as the global section and sections for each struct type). If the user reads in a .disambig file while running Kvasir with a ppt-list-file, then disambiguation information is applied for all variables at the program points to be traced. This can be much faster and generate a much smaller disambiguation file, one that only contains information about the program points of interest.

The interaction between selective variable tracing (via the var-list-file) and pointer type disambiguation is a bit more complicated. This is because the var-list-file lists variables as they appear in the .decls and .dtrace files, but using a .disambig file can actually change the way that variable names are printed out in the .decls and .dtrace files. For example, consider the test program from the Pointer type disambiguation example. The struct record* bar parameter of foo() is treated like an array by default. Hence, the .decls, .dtrace, and var-list-file will list the following variables derived from this parameter:

----SECTION----
..foo()
bar
bar[].name
bar[].numbers[0]
bar[].numbers[0][0]
bar[].numbers[1]
bar[].numbers[1][0]
bar[].numbers[2]
bar[].numbers[2][0]
bar[].numbers[3]
bar[].numbers[3][0]
bar[].numbers[4]
bar[].numbers[4][0]

However, if we use a disambiguation file to denote bar as a pointer to a single element, then the .decls and .dtrace files will instead list the following variables:

----SECTION----
..foo()
bar
bar->name
bar->numbers
bar->numbers[]

Notice how the latter variable list is more compact and reflects the fact that bar is a pointer to a single struct. Thus, the flattening of the numbers[5] static array member variable is no longer necessary (it was necessary without disambiguation because Daikon does not support nested arrays of arrays, which can occur if bar were itself an array since numbers[5] is already an array).

Notice that, with the exception of the base variable bar, all other variable names differ when running without and with disambiguation. Thus, if you used a var-list-file generated on a run without the disambiguation information while running Kvasir with the disambiguation information, the names will not match up at all, and you will not get the proper selective variable tracing behavior.

The suggested way to use selective variable tracing with pointer type disambiguation is as follows:

  1. First create the proper .disambig file by using either --disambig or --disambig-file. You can use --ppt-list-file as well to only create the .disambig file for certain program points, but do NOT use --var-list-file to try to create a .disambig only for certain variables; this feature does not work yet. Modify the variable entries in the Kvasir-generated .disambig file to suit your needs.
  2. Now create a var-list-file by using --dump-var-file while running Kvasir with the .disambig file that you have just created. This ensures that the variables listed in var-list-file will have the proper names for use with that particular .disambig file. Modify the Kvasir-generated var-list-file to suit your needs.
  3. Finally, run Kvasir with the --var-list-file option using the var-list-file that you have just created and either the --disambig or --disambig-file option with the proper .disambig file. This will perform the desired function: selective variable tracing along with disambiguation for all of the traced variables.

For maximum control of the output, you can use selective program point tracing, variable tracing, and disambiguation together all at once.


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7.3.6 C++ support

Kvasir supports C++, but Kvasir has been tested more on C programs than on C++ programs, so Kvasir’s C++ support is not as mature as its C support. Here is a partial list of C++ features that Kvasir currently supports:

One current C++ limitation is that Kvasir cannot print out the contents of classes which are defined in external libraries rather than in the user’s program (e.g., it can properly output a C-string represented as char* but not the contents of the C++ string class). If further support for specific C++ features are important to you, please send email to daikon-developers@googlegroups.com, so that we can increase its priority on our to-do list.


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7.3.7 Online execution

The term online execution refers to running Daikon at the same time as the target program, without writing any information to a file. This can avoid some I/O overhead, prevent filling up your disk with files, and in the future Daikon may be able to produce partial results as the target program is executing. A limitation of online execution is that, unless FIFO files, or named pipes (see Online execution with DynComp for C/C++) are used, it runs Daikon over only a single execution, as opposed to generalizing over multiple executions as can be done when writing to files and supplying all the files to Daikon. The Chicory front end for Java also supports online execution, via its --daikon-online option (see Chicory miscellaneous options).

To use regular pipes in lieu of a disk file, simply use - as the name of the .dtrace file, and run the target program and Daikon in a Linux pipeline. When the --dtrace-file=- option is used to redirect the dtrace output to stdout, the target program’s stdout is redirected to the terminal (/dev/tty) so that it does not intermix with the dtrace output.

kvasir-dtrace --dtrace-file=- ./bzip2 --help | $DAIKON -

Of course, you could also replace --help with -vv1 file.txt to compress a text file (but start with a small one first).

(This example assumes that you have compiled the bzip2 example (in $DAIKONDIR/examples/c-examples/bzip2 of the distribution) by saying gcc -gdwarf-2 bzip2.c -o bzip2, and that $DAIKON stands for the command that invokes Daikon, for instance java -Xmx512m daikon.Daikon --config_option daikon.derive.Derivation.disable_derived_variables=true.)

Instead of a regular pipe, you can use a named pipe, also known as a FIFO, which is a special kind of file supported by most Linux-compatible systems. When one process tries to open a FIFO for reading, it blocks, waiting for another process to open it for writing (or vice-versa). When both a reader and a writer are ready, the FIFO connects the reader to the writer like a regular Linux pipe.

The --output-fifo option causes Kvasir to create its output .dtrace file as a named pipe. When Kvasir is run with this option, Daikon needs to be run at the same time to read from the FIFO, such as from another terminal or using the shell’s ‘&’ operator.

For instance, the following two commands have the same effect as the pipeline above that used ordinary pipes. The FIFO is named bzip2.dtrace.

kvasir-dtrace --output-fifo ./bzip2 --help &
$DAIKON bzip2.dtrace

The two commands (before and after the ampersand) could also be run in two different terminals.


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7.3.7.1 Online execution with DynComp for C/C++

When running Kvasir with DynComp (using the --with-dyncomp option), Kvasir generates the .decls file after it generates the .dtrace file, so it is not possible to perform online execution using one run. The recommended way to perform online execution with DynComp is to run it once and only generate a .decls file with comparability information, then run Kvasir again without DynComp and pipe the .dtrace data directly into Daikon while using the .decls file generated from the previous run:

kvasir-dtrace --with-dyncomp --decls-only ./foo

This should generate a .decls file with comparability information named daikon-output/foo.decls.

kvasir-dtrace --dtrace-no-decs --dtrace-file=- ./foo \
    | java daikon.Daikon daikon-output/foo.decls -

When you run Kvasir the second time, you don’t need to run DynComp again since you are only interested in the .dtrace file. Notice that the .dtrace output is directed to standard out (--dtrace-file=-) and does not contain any declarations (--dtrace-no-decs) because the .decls file already contains the declarations. You can simply pipe that .dtrace output out to Daikon, which is invoked using the .decls file (with comparability information) generated during your previous run.


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7.3.8 Installing Kvasir

The source code for Kvasir is included in the main Daikon distribution, and is compiled by default on Linux/x86 and Linux/x86-64 systems.

To compile and install Kvasir, give the command make kvasir from the top-level Daikon directory:

cd $DAIKONDIR
make kvasir

This will check that you have the appropriate prerequisites (such as GCC), configure Kvasir for your machine, compile it, and install it in the directory kvasir/inst.

You may see warnings about the “missing” script. These can be ignored.

Once Kvasir has been installed, it can be used via the kvasir-dtrace script in the $DAIKONDIR/scripts directory; if you have set up the Daikon environment according to the instructions above, it should already be in your PATH. For instructions on using Kvasir, see Kvasir.


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7.3.9 Kvasir implementation and limitations

Kvasir is based on the Valgrind dynamic program supervision framework (which is best known for its memory error detection tool). Using Valgrind allows Kvasir to interrupt your program’s execution, read its variables, and examine its memory usage, all transparently to the program. Also, rather than using your program’s source code to find the names and types of functions and variables, Kvasir obtains them from debugging information included in the executable in a standard format (DWARF-2).

However, Kvasir has some limitations of its own. Because Kvasir uses Valgrind, it shares Valgrind’s processor and operating system limitations. Furthermore, of the platforms supported by Valgrind, the only ones currently supported by Kvasir are x86-linux and amd64-linux. x86-linux refers to Intel 386-compatible processors (the so-called IA-32 architecture) such as the Intel Pentium and the AMD Athlon, running Linux. amd64-linux refers to the 64-bit extension of the x86 architecture found in many newer Intel and AMD processors, also variously referred to as x86-64, IA-32e, EM64T, and Intel 64, when running under a Linux kernel in 64-bit mode. The Itanium or IA-64 architecture is not supported. The Kvasir build process will automatically compile a 32-bit version, a 64-bit version, or both, whichever are supported by your system’s default compiler.

Kvasir requires that your program have debugging information available in the DWARF-2 format, as produced by GCC version 3 and later. For the best results, the programs used by Kvasir should be compiled without optimization.

This subsection lists some of the known limitations of the current Kvasir release; if you encounter any problems other than listed here, please report them as bugs (see Reporting problems). The limitations are listed roughly in decreasing order of severity.


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7.4 .NET (C#) front end Celeriac

The Daikon front end for .NET languages, named Celeriac, is distributed separately; it currently supports the C#, F# and Visual Basic .NET languages. Celeriac runs the .NET program, creates data trace (.dtrace) files, and optionally runs Daikon on them. Celeriac is named after the celeriac plant, whose root may be used as an ingredient in soups or stews.

To use Celeriac, run your program as you normally would, but with the Celeriac Launcher. For instance, if you usually run

MyProgram.exe arg1 arg2 arg3

then instead you would run

CeleriacLauncher.exe celeriacArg1 celeriacArg2 MyProgram.exe arg1 arg2 arg3

This runs your program and creates the MyProgram.dtrace in the current directory. Since Celeriac instruments class files directly as they are loaded into .NET, you do not need to perform separate instrumentation and recompilation steps.

For more details about how to download and use Celeriac, please see http://code.google.com/p/daikon-dot-net-front-end/wiki/GettingStarted.


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7.5 Perl front end dfepl

This section contains details about dfepl, the Daikon front end for Perl. For a brief introduction to dfepl, see Perl examples and Instrumenting Perl programs.

dfepl works with Perl versions 5.8 and later. (To be precise, Perl programs instrumented with dfepl can also be run with Perl 5.6, but the instrumentation engine, which is itself written in Perl, requires version 5.8). dfepl reads the source code for Perl modules or programs, and writes out instrumented versions of that code that keep track of function parameters, and make calls to routines in the daikon_runtime package whenever an instrumented subroutine is entered or exited.

The instrumentation engine recognizes parameters as those variables that are declared with my(...) or local(...) and, in the same expression, assigned to from a value related to the argument array @_, but only among the first contiguous series of such assignments in the body of a subroutine. This will capture the most common assignment idioms, such as my $self = shift; (where shift is short for shift @_), my $x = $_[0];, and my($x, $y, @a) = @_;, but the arguments to subroutines which access them only directly through @_, or that perform other operations before reading their arguments, will not be recognized.

If the uninstrumented code requested warnings via the use warnings pragma or by adding the -w flag on the #! line, the instrumented code will also request warnings. In this case, or if -w is specified on the command line when running it, the instrumented code may produce warnings that the original code did not. There are several situations in which the instrumented code produced by dfepl, while functionally equivalent to the original, generates more warnings. The most common such problem, which arises from code that captures the scalar-context return value of a subroutine that returns a list, has been avoided in the current version by disabling the warning in question. Other warnings which are known to be produced innocuously in this way include ‘Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::foo(), qualify as such or use &’ (caused by code that uses CORE:: to distinguish a built-in function from a user subroutine of the same name), and ‘Constant subroutine foo redefined’ (caused by loading both instrumented and uninstrumented versions of a file). Though some such warnings represent deficiencies in the instrumentation engine, they can be safely ignored when they occur.

Because Perl programs do not contain static type information to distinguish, for instance, between strings and numbers, the Perl front end incorporates an additional dynamic analysis to infer these types. This type guessing, which occurs as a first pass before the program can be instrumented to produce output for Daikon, operates in a manner somewhat analogous to Daikon itself: watching the execution of a program, the runtime system chooses the most restrictive type for a variable that is not contradicted during that execution. These types indicate, for instance, whether a scalar value always holds an integer, a possibly fractional numeric value, or a reference to another object. It should not be necessary to examine or modify this type information directly, but for the curious, the syntax of the type information is described in comments in the Daikon::PerlType module.

The safest course is to infer types for variables using exactly the same program executions (e.g., test cases) which will later be used to generate traces for Daikon, as this guarantees that the type information will match the actual data written to the trace file. However, because the type-guessing-instrumented versions of programs run fairly slowly in the current version, you may be tempted to use a subset of the input data for type guessing. Doing so is possible, but it will only work correctly if the smaller tests exercise all of the instrumented subroutines and exit points with all the types of data they will later be used with. If the trace runtime tries to output a data value that doesn’t match the inferred type, the value may silently be converted according to Perl’s usual conventions (for instance, a non-numeric string may be treated as the number zero), or it may cause an error during tracing (for instance, trying to dereference a supposed array reference that isn’t). Also, if a subroutine exit point is traced but was never encountered during type guessing, the generated .decls and .dtrace files will be incompatible in a way that will cause Daikon to abort with an error message of the form ‘Program point foo():::EXIT22 appears in .dtrace file but not in any .decls file’.

images/dfepl-flow

Figure 7.1: Workflow of instrumenting Perl code with dfepl.

dfepl works by reading one or more Perl programs or modules, and writing out new versions of those files, instrumented to capture information about their execution, by default to another directory. dfepl is used in two passes: first, before type information is available, instrumented versions are written to a directory daikon-untyped. These untyped programs, when run, will write files containing dynamically inferred type information (with the extension .types), by default to the daikon-instrumented directory. When dfepl is rerun with this type information, it produces type-aware instrumented code in the daikon-instrumented directory, which when run produces execution traces in files with the extension .dtrace in the a directory daikon-output.


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7.5.1 dfepl options

--absolute
--no-absolute

--absolute stores the absolute path to the output directories (by default named daikon-untyped, daikon-instrumented or daikon-output) in the instrumented programs, so that no matter where the instrumented program is run, the output will go to a fixed location. Even if these directories are given as relative paths (as is the default), --absolute specifies that they should always be taken as relative to the directory that was the working directory when dfepl was run.

--no-absolute specifies the opposite, causing the output paths to be interpreted relative to the current working directory each time the instrumented program is invoked. The default, when neither option is specified, is for .types files to use an absolute path, but all others to use relative path, so that the .types files will always be in the same place as the instrumented source files that generated them, but the daikon-output directory will be created in the current directory when the program runs.

--accessor-depth=num

Controls the number of nested invocations of object accessor methods to examine. For instance, suppose that the Person class has a method mother() that returns another person (and has been specified to dfepl as an accessor), and that $me is an instrumented variable. If the accessor depth is 1, only $me->mother() will be examined. If the depth is 2, $me->mother()->mother() will also be examined. Specifying large accessor depths is generally not advisable, especially with many accessor methods, as the number of variables examined can be too many for Daikon to process efficiently.

By default, the Daikon Perl trace runtime will examine at most a single level of accessors.

-A
--accessors-dir=directory

Look for files containing accessor lists in directory, or the current directory if directory is omitted. For a class Acme::Foo, accessors are methods that return information about an object but do not modify it. dfepl cannot determine on its own which methods are accessors, but when a list of them is provided, it can call an object’s accessors when examining a variable of that class to obtain more information about the object. To tell dfepl about the accessors for Acme::Foo, make a file listing the names of each accessor method, one per line with no other punctuation, named Acme/Foo.accessors in the same directory as Acme/Foo.pm.

--decls-dir=directory

Put generated declaration files in directory and its subdirectories. The default is daikon-output.

--decls-style=style

style should be one of combined, flat, or tree. A style of combined specifies that the declarations for all packages should be merged, in a file named prog-combined.decls where prog is the name of the program. A style of flat specifies that the declarations for each package should be in a separate file named after the package, but that these files should go in a single directory; for instance, the declarations for Acme::Trampoline and Acme::Skates::Rocket would go in files named Acme::Trampoline.decls and Acme::Skates::Rocket.decls. A style of tree specifies that each package should have its own declarations file, and that those files should be arranged in directories whose structure matches the structure of their package names; in the example above, the files would be Acme/Trampoline.decls and Acme/Skates/Rocket.decls.

The default is tree. Note that --decls-style and --types-style are currently constrained to be the same; if one is specified, the other will use the same value.

--dtrace-append
--no-dtrace-append

When --dtrace-append is specified, the instrumented program will append trace information to the appropriate .dtrace file each time it runs. When --no-dtrace-append is specified, it will overwrite the file instead.

The default behavior is to overwrite. This choice can also be overridden, when the program is run, to always append by setting the environment variable DTRACEAPPEND to 1.

When appending to a .dtrace file, no declaration information is ever produced, because it would be redundant to do so and Daikon does not permit re-declarations of program points.

--dtrace-dir=directory

Put generated trace files in directory and its subdirectories. The default is daikon-output.

--dtrace-style=style

style should be one of combined, flat, or tree. A style of combined specifies that the traces for all packages should be merged, in a file named prog-combined.dtrace, where prog is the name of the program. A style of flat specifies that the traces for each package should be in a separate file named after the package, but that these files should go in a single directory; for instance, the declarations for Acme::Trampoline and Acme::Skates::Rocket would go in files named Acme::Trampoline.dtrace and Acme::Skates::Rocket.dtrace. A style of tree specifies that each package should have its own trace file, and that those files should be arranged in directories whose structure matches the structure of their package names; in the example above, the files would be Acme/Trampoline.dtrace and Acme/Skates/Rocket.dtrace.

The default is combined.

--help

Print a short options summary.

--instr-dir=directory
--instrsourcedir=directory

Put instrumented source files in directory and its subdirectories. The default is daikon-untyped, or daikon-instrumented if type information is available.

--list-depth=DEPTH

Consider as many as DEPTH of the first elements of a list to be distinct entities, for the purpose of guessing their types. When subroutines return a list of values, each value may have a distinct meaning, or the list may be homogeneous. When trying to assign types to the elements of a list, the Daikon Perl trace runtime will try making separate guesses about the types of the elements of a short list, but it would be inefficient to make retain this distinction for many elements. This parameter controls how many elements of a list will be examined individually; all the others will be treated uniformly.

The default is 3.

--output-dir=directory

Put all of the files that are the output of the tracing process (and therefore input to the Daikon invariant detection engine) in directory and its subdirectories. This option is a shorthand equivalent to setting both --decls-dir and --dtrace-dir to the same value.

The default behavior is as if --output-dir=daikon-output had been specified.

--perl=path

Use path as the location of Perl when calling the annotation back end (a module named B::DeparseDaikon), rather than the version of Perl under which dfepl itself is running, which is probably the first perl that occurs on your path. For instance, if the first version of perl on your path isn’t version 5.8 or later, you should this option to specify another perl program that is.

--nesting-depth=num

When examining nested data structures, traverse as many as num nested references. For instance, suppose that @a is the array

@a = ({1 => [2, 3]}, {5 => [4, 2]})

If the depth is 0, then when examining @a, Daikon’s Perl trace runtime will consider it to be an array whose elements are references, but it won’t examine what those references point to. If the depth is 1, it will consider it to be an array of references to hashes whose keys are integers and whose values are references, but it won’t examine what those references point to. Finally, if the depth is 2 or more, it will consider @a to be an array of references to hashes whose keys are integers and whose values are references to arrays of integers.

The default nesting depth is 3.

When referenced objects have accessor methods, or when accessors return references, the --accessor-depth and --nesting-depth options interact. Specifically, if these depths are A and R, the behavior is as if the runtime has a budget of 1 unit, which it can use either on accessors which cost 1/A or references which cost 1/R. It may thus sometimes be useful to specify fractional values for --accessor-depth and --nesting-depth; in fact, the default accessor depth is 1.5.

--types-append
--no-types-append

When --types-append is specified, the instrumented program will append type information to the appropriate .types file each time it runs. When --no-types-append is specified, it will overwrite the file instead.

The default behavior is to append. If --no-types-append is specified, however, this choice can also be overridden, when the program is run, to append by setting the environment variable TYPESAPPEND to 1. There is no way to use environment variables to force the runtime to overwrite a types file, but an equivalent effect can be obtained by simply removing the previous types file before each run.

-T
--types-dir=directory

Look for .types files in directory, or daikon-instrumented if directory is omitted. When instrumenting a module Acme::Trampoline, used in a program coyote.pl, dfepl will look for files named coyote-combined.types, Acme::Trampoline.types, and Acme/Trampoline.types, corresponding to the possible choices of --types-style. Once discovered, the files are used in the same way as for -t.

--types-file=file
-t file

Include type information from file when instrumenting programs or modules. Since Daikon needs to know the types of variables when they are declared, useful .decls and .dtrace files can only be produced by source code instrumented with type information. Since Perl programs don’t include this information to begin with, and it would be cumbersome to produce by hand, type information must usually be produced by running a version of the program that has itself been annotated, but without type information. The Daikon Perl trace runtime will automatically decide whether to output types, or declarations and traces, depending on whether the source was instrumented without or with types. This option may occur multiple times, to read information from multiple types files (irrelevant type information will be ignored).

--types-basedir=directory

Put files containing type information in directory and its subdirectories. By default, this is whatever --instr-dir is, usually daikon-instrumented.

--types-style=style

style should be one of combined, flat, or tree. A style of combined specifies that the types for all packages should be merged, in a file named prog-combined.types, where prog is the name of the program. A style of flat specifies that the types for each package should be in a separate file named after the package, but that these files should go in a single directory; for instance, the declarations for Acme::Trampoline and Acme::Skates::Rocket would go in files named Acme::Trampoline.types and Acme::Skates::Rocket.types. A style of tree specifies that each package should have its own trace file, and that those files should be arranged in directories whose structure matches the structure of their package names; in the example above, the files would be Acme/Trampoline.types and Acme/Skates/Rocket.types.

The default is tree. Note that --types-style and --decls-style are currently constrained to be the same; if one is specified, the other will use the same value.

--verbose
-v

Print additional information about what dfepl is doing, including external commands invoked.


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7.6 Comma-separated-value front end convertcsv.pl

Daikon can process data from spreadsheets such as Excel. In order to use such files, first save them in comma-separated-value format, also known as csv or comma-delimited or comma-separated-list, format. Then, convert the .csv file into a .dtrace file (and a .decls file) to be used by Daikon by running the convertcsv.pl program found in the $DAIKONDIR/scripts directory. For example,

convertcsv.pl myfile.csv

produces files myfile.decls and myfile.dtrace.

Important: run convertcsv.pl without any arguments in order to see a usage message.

In order to ensure all data is processed, use Daikon with the --nohierarchy option, as follows:

java daikon.Daikon --nohierarchy myfile.decls myfile.dtrace

In a future release, the --nohierarchy option may not be necessary, but it should always be safe to use this option.

Before running convertcsv.pl, you may need to install Text::CSV, a Perl package that convertcsv.pl uses. You also need the checkargs.pm file, which is part of the plume-lib library (http://code.google.com/p/plume-lib/).


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7.7 Other front ends

It is relatively easy to create a Daikon front end for another language or run-time system. For example, people have done this without any help at all from the Daikon developers. For more information about building a new front end, see New front ends in Daikon Developer Manual.

A front end for the Eiffel programming language is distributed separately; see http://se.inf.ethz.ch/people/polikarpova/citadel/.

A front end for the Input Output Automaton programming language is distributed separately; see http://groups.csail.mit.edu/tds/ioa.html.

An earlier version of Daikon included a Lisp front end, but it is no longer supported.

An earlier version of Daikon provided a source-based front end for Java named dfej. It has been superseded by Chicory (see Chicory).

An earlier version of Daikon provided a source-based front end for C named dfec. It has been superseded by Kvasir (binary-based, for Linux/x86; see Kvasir).


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8 Tools for use with Daikon

This chapter describes various tools that are included with the Daikon distribution.


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8.1 Tools for manipulating invariants

This section gives information about tools that manipulate invariants (in the form of .inv files).


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8.1.1 Printing invariants

Daikon provides many options for controlling how invariants are printed. Often, you may want to print the same set of invariants several different ways. However, you only want to run Daikon once, since it may be very time consuming. The PrintInvariants utility prints a set of invariants from a .inv file.

PrintInvariants is invoked as follows:

java daikon.PrintInvariants [flags] inv-file

PrintInvariants shares many flags with Daikon. These flags are only briefly summarized here. For more information about these flags, see Daikon configuration options.

--help

Print usage message.

--format name

Produce output in the given format. See Invariant syntax.

--output_num_samples

Output numbers of values and samples for invariants and program points; for debugging.

--ppt-select-pattern

Only outputs program points that match the specified regular expression

--config filename

Load the configuration settings specified in the given file. See Configuration options, for details.

--config_option name=value

Specify a single configuration setting. See Configuration options, for details.

--dbg category
--debug

Enable debug loggers.

--track class<var1,var2,var3>@ppt

Track information on specified invariant class, variables and program point. For more information, see Track logging in Daikon Developer Manual.

--wrap-xml

Print extra info about invariants, and wrap in XML tags. This is primarily for programmatic use and for debugging.


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8.1.2 MergeInvariants

The MergeInvariants utility merges multiple serialized invariant files to create a single serialized invariant file that contains the invariants that are true across each of the input files. The results of merging N serialized invariant files should be the same as running Daikon on the N original .dtrace files.

MergeInvariants is invoked as follows:

java daikon.MergeInvariants [flags]... file1 file2...

file1 and file2 are files containing serialized invariants produced by running Daikon. At least two invariant files must be specified.

MergeInvariants shares many flags with Daikon. These flags are only briefly summarized here. For more information about these flags, see Daikon configuration options.

-h --help

Print usage message.

-o inv_file

Output serialized invariants to the specified file; they can later be postprocessed, compared, etc. If not specified, the results are written to standard out.

--config_option name=value

Specify a single configuration setting. See Configuration options, for details.

--dbg category

Enable debug loggers.

--track class<var1,var2,var3>@ppt

Track information on specified invariant class, variables and program point. For more information, see Track logging in Daikon Developer Manual.


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8.1.3 Invariant Diff

The invariant diff utility is designed to output the differences between two sets of invariants. This is useful, for example, if you want to compare the invariants generated by two versions of the same program.

Invariant diff is invoked as follows:

java daikon.diff.Diff [flags]... file1 [file2]

file1 and file2 are files containing serialized invariants produced by running Daikon or Diff with the -o flag. If file2 is not specified, file1 is compared with the empty set of invariants.

This section describes the optional flags.

--help

Print usage message.

-d

Display the tree of differing invariants (default). Invariants that are the same in file1 and file2 are not printed. At least one of the invariants must be justified. Does not print “uninteresting” invariants (currently some ‘OneOf’ and ‘Bound’ invariants).

-u

Include “uninteresting” invariants in the tree of differing invariants.

-y
--ignore_unjustified

Include (statistically) unjustified invariants.

-a

Display the tree of all invariants. Includes invariants that are the same in file1 and file2, and unjustified invariants.

-s

For internal use only. Display the statistics between two sets of invariants. The pairs of invariants are placed in bins according to the type of the invariant and the type of the difference.

-t

For internal use only. Display the same statistics as -s, but as a tab-separated list.

-m

Compute (file1 - file2). This is all the invariants that appear in file1 but not file2. Unjustified invariants are treated as if they don’t exist. Output is written as a serialized ‘InvMap’ to the file specified with the -o option. To view the contents of the serialized ‘InvMap’, run java daikon.diff.Diff file.

-x

Compute (file1 XOR file2). This is all the invariants that appear in one file but not the other. Unjustified invariants are treated as if they don’t exist. Output is written as a serialized ‘InvMap’ to the file specified with the -o option. To view the contents of the serialized ‘InvMap’, run java daikon.diff.Diff file.

-n

Compute (file1 UNION file2). This is all the invariants that appear in either file. If the same invariant appears in both files, the one with the better justification is chosen. Output is written as a serialized ‘InvMap’ to the file specified with the -o option. To view the contents of the serialized ‘InvMap’, run java daikon.diff.Diff file.

-o inv_file

Used in combination with the -m or -x option. Writes the output as a serialized ‘InvMap’ to the specified file.

-j

For internal use only. Treat justification as a continuous value when gathering statistics. By default, justification is treated as a binary value — an invariant is either justified or it is not. For example, assume invariant ‘I1’ has a probability of .01, and ‘I2’ has a probability of .5. By default, this will be a difference of 1, since ‘I1’ is justified but ‘I2’ is not. With this option, this will be a difference of .49, the difference in the probabilities. This only applies when one invariant is justified, and the other is unjustified.

-p

Examine all program points. By default, only procedure entries and combined procedure exits are examined. This option also causes conditional program points to be examined.

-e

Print empty program points. By default, program points are not printed if they contain no differences.

-v

Verbose output. Invariants are printed using the repr() method, instead of the format() method.

-l

For debugging use only. Prints logging information describing the state of the program as it runs.

--invSortComparator1 classname
--invSortComparator2 classname
--invPairComparator classname

Use the specified class as a custom comparator. A custom comparator can be used for any of 3 operations: sorting the first set of invariants, sorting the second set of invariants, and combining the two sets into the pair tree. The specified class must implement the Comparator interface, and accept objects of type Invariant.


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8.1.4 Annotate

The Annotate program inserts Daikon-generated invariants into Java source code as annotations in DBC, ESC, Java or JML format. These annotations are comments that can be automatically verified or otherwise manipulated by other tools. The Daikon website has an example of code after invariant insertion: http://plse.cs.washington.edu/daikon/StackAr.html.

Invoke Annotate like this:

java daikon.tools.jtb.Annotate Myprog.inv Myprog.java Myprog2.java ...

The first argument is a Daikon .inv or .inv.gz file produced by running Daikon with the -o command-line argument. All subsequent arguments are .java files. The original .java files are left unmodified, but Annotate produces new versions of the .java files (with names suffixed as -escannotated, -jmlannotated, or -dbcannotated) that include the Daikon invariants as comments.

The options are:

--format name

Produce output in the given format. See Invariant syntax.

--no_reflection

Do not use reflection to find information about the classes being instrumented. This allows Annotate to run without having access to the class files. Since the class files are necessary to generate ‘also’ tags, those tags will be left out when this option is chosen.

--max_invariants_pp count

Output at most count invariants per program point (which ones are chosen is not specified).

--wrap_xml

Each invariant is printed using the given format (ESC, JML or DBC), but the invariant expression is wrapped inside XML tags, along with other information about the invariant.

For example, if this switch is set, the output format is ESC, and an invariant for method foo(int x) normally prints as

/* requires x != 0; */

Then the resulting output will look something like this (all in one line; we break it up here for clarity):

/* requires <INVINFO>
<INV> x != 0 </INV>
<SAMPLES> 100 </SAMPLES>
<DAIKON> x != 0 </DAIKON>
<DAIKONCLASS> daikon.inv.unary.scalar.NonZero </DAIKONCLASS>
<METHOD> foo() </METHOD>
</INVINFO> ; */

Note that the comment will no longer be a legal ESC/JML/DBC comment. To make it legal again, you must replace the XML tags with the string between the ‘<INV>’ tag.

Also note the extra information printed with the invariant: the number of samples from which the invariant was inferred, the Daikon representation (i.e., the Daikon output format), the Java class that the invariant corresponds to, and the method that the invariant belongs to (null for object invariants).

If Annotate issues a warning message of the form

Warning: Annotate: Daikon knows nothing about field ...

then the Annotate tool found a variable in the source code that is was computed by Daikon. This can happen if Daikon was run omitting the variable, for instance due to --std-visibility. It can also happen due to a bug in Annotate or Daikon; if that is the case, please report it to the Daikon developers.

Known bug (logical shift in Java). Daikon’s Java parser (adopted from javacc and JTB) accepts Java 1.5 syntax. An error in the new parser may produce illegal Java in the annotated file, if the source file to be annotated includes logical shift operators. See Known bugs.


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8.1.5 AnnotateNullable

AnnotateNullable determines which variables in a Java program were ever null during execution. AnnotateNullable makes it easier to use the Nullness Checker that is part of the Checker Framework.

The ‘Nullness’ Checker warns the programmer about possible null dereference errors. This is useful, but it requires the programmer to write a @Nullable annotation anywhere that a variable might contain null. (An unannotated reference is assumed to never be null at run time.)

The AnnotateNullable tool automatically and soundly determines a subset of the proper @Nullable annotations, reducing the programmer’s burden. Each annotation that AnnotateNullable infers is correct. The programmer may need to write some additional @Nullable annotations, but that is much easier than writing them all.

To insert @Nullable annotations in your program, follow these steps:

  1. Run your application one or more times to create a trace file. The more thorough your test runs, the larger number of @Nullable annotations AnnotateNullable will produce.
    java daikon.Chicory --dtrace-file=an.dtrace.gz mypackage.MyClass arg1 arg2 ...
    
  2. Run Daikon on the resulting .dtrace file:
    java daikon.Daikon an.dtrace.gz --no_text_output \
        --config daikondir/java/daikon/annotate_nullable.config
    
  3. Run the AnnotateNullable tool to create an annotation index file. AnnotateNullable writes its output to standard out, so you should redirect its output to a .jaif file.
    java daikon.AnnotateNullable an.inv.gz > nullable-annotations.jaif
    
  4. Use the Annotation File Utilities to insert the annotations in your .class or .java file.
    # To insert in class files:
    insert-annotations mypackage.MyClass nullable-annotations.jaif
    # To insert in source files:
    insert-annotations-to-source nullable-annotations.jaif \
        mypackage/MyClass.java annotated/mypackage/MyClass.java
    

AnnotateNullable is invoked as follows:

java daikon.AnnotateNullable [flags] inv-file

The flags are:

-n --nonnull-annotations

Adds ‘NonNull’ annotations as well as ‘Nullable’ annotations. Unlike ‘Nullable’ annotations, ‘NonNull’ annotations are not guaranteed to be correct.


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8.1.6 Runtime-check instrumenter (runtimechecker)

The runtimechecker instrumenter inserts, into a Java file, instrumentation code that checks invariants as the program executes. For a full list of options, run:

java daikon.tools.runtimechecker.Main help

The instrument command to runtimechecker creates a new directory instrumented-classes containing a new version of the user-specified Java files, instrumented to check invariants at runtime and to record a list of invariant violations in a Java data structure.

Note that the instrumented program does not do anything with the list of violations; it merely creates the list. You will need to write your own code to process that list; see Accessing violations.

Here is an example of use of the runtime-check instrumenter. To create a version of file ubs/BoundedStack.java that checks the invariants in invariant file BoundedStack.inv.gz, do:

java daikon.tools.runtimechecker.Main instrument BoundedStack.inv.gz \
    ubs/BoundedStack.java

The instrumented Java code references classes in the daikon.tools.runtimechecker package, so those classes must be present in the classpath when the instrumented classes are compiled and executed.

Invariants are evaluated at the program points at which they should hold. Three things can happen when evaluating an invariant:


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8.1.6.1 Accessing violations

The instrumented class handles violations silently: it simply adds them to a list in the class daikon.tools.runtimechecker.Runtime. No “invariant violation” exceptions are thrown, and the violated invariants can only be obtained dynamically from class daikon.tools.runtimechecker.Runtime.

A future release of Daikon will provide tools that process the list in the following ways:

  1. To write a file of all the violations for a program execution. A prototype of such a tool is provided in the Daikon distribution, as program daikon.tools.runtimechecker.WriteViolationFile. If you would ordinarily run your program as ‘java MyProg arg1 arg2’, then running ‘java daikon.tools.runtimechecker.WriteViolationFile MyProg arg1 arg2’ creates a file called violations.txt in the current directory. If the program under test calls System.exit, then no violations.txt file is created.
  2. Throw an exception when any violation occurs.

The following code snippet contains a method callMethod() which presumably calls one of the methods in the instrumented class. The code detects if any violations occurred, and if so, prints a message.

daikon.tools.runtimechecker.Runtime.resetViolations();
daikon.tools.runtimechecker.Runtime.resetErrors();

callMethod();

List<Violation> vs = daikon.tools.runtimechecker.Runtime.getViolations();

if (!vs.isEmpty())
  System.out.println("Violations occurred.");

In addition, the instrumenter adds the following two methods to the instrumented class:

Known bug (logical shift in Java). Daikon’s Java parser (adopted from javacc and JTB) accepts Java 1.5 syntax. An error in the new parser may produce illegal Java in the instrumented file, if the source file to be instrumented includes logical shift operators. See Known bugs.


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8.1.7 InvariantChecker

The InvariantChecker program takes a set of invariants found by Daikon and a set of data trace files. It checks each sample in the data trace files against each of the invariants. Any sample that violates an invariant is noted, via a message printed to standard output or to a specified output file.

InvariantChecker is invoked as follows:

java daikon.tools.InvariantChecker [options] invariant-file dtrace-files

The invariant-files are invariant files (.inv) created by running Daikon. The dtrace-files are data trace (.dtrace) files created by running the instrumented program. The files may appear in any order; the file type is determined by whether the file name contains .dtrace, or .inv.

The options are:

--help

Print usage message.

--output output-file

Write any violations to the specified file.

--conf

Checks only invariants that are above the default confidence level.

--filter

Checks only invariants that are not filtered by the default filters.

--verbose

Print all samples that violate an invariant. By default only the totals are printed.

--dir directory-name

Processes all invariant files in the given directory and reports the number of invariants that failed on any of the .dtrace files in that directory. We only process invariants above the default confidence level and invariants that have not been filtered out by the default filters.

--config_option name=value
--dbg category
--track class<var1,var2,var3>@ppt

These switches are the same as for Daikon. They are described in Running Daikon.


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8.1.8 LogicalCompare

Given two sets of invariants describing the operation of a software module, or describing two implementations of a module with the same interface, we can define one set of invariants to be “stronger” than another roughly if in any situation where the “stronger” invariants hold, the “weaker” invariants also hold. The LogicalCompare tool examines two sets of invariants, and checks using the Simplify automatic theorem prover whether they satisfy a precise version of this relationship.

Simplify must be separately obtained (from http://www.hpl.hp.com/downloads/crl/jtk/) and installed in order to use this program.

The LogicalCompare program takes two mandatory arguments, which are .inv files containing invariants; the invariants will be checked to verify if the invariants in the first file are weaker (implied by) the invariants in the second file, and exceptions to this implication are printed. If no other regular arguments are supplied, all the method or function program points that exist in both files will be compared, with a exception message reported for each method that exists in the “weaker” set but not the “stronger”. Alternatively, one or two additional arguments may be supplied, which name an :::ENTER program point and an :::EXIT program point to examine (if only an :::ENTER program point is supplied, the corresponding combined :::EXIT point is selected automatically). To be precise, for each pair of program points representing a single method or function, LogicalCompare will check that each precondition (:::ENTER point invariant) in the “stronger” invariant set is implied by some combination of invariants in the “weaker” invariant set, and that each postcondition (:::EXIT point invariant) in the “weaker” invariant set is implied by some combination of postconditions in the “stronger” set and preconditions in the “weaker” set. In summary, the syntax of an invocation of LogicalCompare will have the following form:

java daikon.tools.compare.LogicalCompare [options] \
    weak-invs strong-invs [enter-ppt [exit-ppt]]

LogicalCompare accepts the following options:

--assume file

Read additional assumptions about the behavior of compared routines from the file file. The assumptions file should consist of lines starting with ‘PPT_NAME’, followed by the complete name of an :::ENTER program point, followed by lines each consisting of a Simplify formula, optionally followed by a # and a human-readable annotation. Blank lines and lines beginning with a # are ignored. The assumption properties will be used as if they were invariants true at the strong :::EXIT point when checking weak :::EXIT point invariants.

--cfg option=value

Specify a single configuration setting. The available settings are the same as can be passed to Daikon’s --config_option option, though because the invariants have already been generated, some will have no effect. For a list of available options, see Configuration options.

--config-file=file

Read configuration options from the file file. This file should have the same format as one passed to Daikon’s --config option, though because the invariants have already been generated, some will have no effect.

--debug-all
--dbg category

These options have the same effect as the --debug and --dbg options to Daikon, causing debugging logs to be printed.

--filters=[bBoOmjpi]

Control which invariants are removed from consideration before implications are checked. Note that except as controlled by this option, LogicalCompare does not perform any of the filters that normally control whether invariants are printed by Daikon. Also, invariants that cannot be formatted for the Simplify automatic theorem prover will be discarded in any case, as there would be no other way to process them. Each letter controls a filter: an invariant is rejected if it is rejected by any filter (or, equivalently, kept only if it passes through every filter).

b

Discard upper-bound and lower-bound invariants (such as ‘x <= c’ and ‘x >= c’ for a constant c), when Daikon considers the constant to be uninteresting. Currently, Daikon has a configurable range of interesting constant: by default, -1, 0, 1, and 2 are interesting, and no other numbers are.

B

Discard all bound invariants, whether or not the constants in them are considered interesting.

o

Discard ‘one-of’ invariants (which signify that a variable always had one of a small set of values at runtime), when the values that the variable took are considered uninteresting by Daikon.

O

Discard all ‘one-of’ invariants, whether or not the values involved are interesting.

m

Discard invariants for which it was never the case that all the variables involved in the invariant were present at the same time.

j

Discard invariants that Daikon determines to be statistically unjustified, according to its tests.

p

Discard invariants that refer to the values of pass-by-value parameters in the postcondition, or to the values of objects pointed to by parameters in postconditions, when the pointer is not necessarily the same as at the entrance to the method or function. Usually such invariants reflect implementation details that would not be visible to the caller of a method.

i

Discard implication invariants when they appear in :::ENTER program points.

The default set of filters corresponds to the letters ijmp.

--help

Print a brief summary of available command-line options.

--no-post-after-pre-failure

If implication is not verified between two invariant sets after examining the preconditions, do not continue to check the implication involving postconditions. Because the postconditions aren’t formally meaningful outside the domain specified by the preconditions, this is the safest behavior, but in practice trivial precondition mismatches may prevent an otherwise meaningful postcondition comparison. See also --post-after-pre-failure.

--proofs

For each implication among invariants that is verified, print a minimal set of conditions that establish the truth of the conclusion. The set is minimal, in the sense that if any condition were removed, the conclusion would no longer logically follow according to Simplify, but it is not the least such set: there may exist a smaller set of conditions that establish the conclusion, if that set is not a subset of the set printed. Beware that because this option uses a naive search technique, it may significantly slow down output.

--post-after-pre-failure

Even if implication is not verified between two invariant sets after examining the preconditions, continue to check the implication involving postconditions. This is somewhat dangerous, in that if the implication does not hold between the preconditions, the invariant sets may be inconsistent, in which case reasoning about the postconditions is formally nonsensical, but the tool will attempt to ignore the contradiction and carry on in this case. This is now the default behavior, so the option has no effect, but it is retained for backward compatibility. See also --no-post-after-pre-failure.

--show-count

Print a count of the number of invariants checked for implication.

--show-formulas

For each invariant, show how it is represented as a logical formula passed to Simplify.

--show-sets

Rather than testing implications among invariants, simply print the sets of weak and strong :::ENTER and :::EXIT point invariants that would normally be compared. The invariants are selected and filtered as implied by other options.

--show-valid

Print invariants that are verified to be implied (“valid”), as well as those for which the implication could not be verified (“invalid” invariants, which are always printed).

--timing

For each set of invariants checked, print the total time required for the check. This time includes both processing done by LogicalCompare directly, and time spent waiting for processing done by Simplify, but does not include time spent deserializing the .inv input files.


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8.2 DtraceDiff utility

DtraceDiff is a utility for comparing data trace (.dtrace) files. It checks that the same program points are visited in the same order in both files, and that the number, names, types, and values of variables at each program point are the same. The differences are found using a content-based, rather than text-based, comparison of the two files.

DtraceDiff stops by signalling an error when it finds a difference between the two data trace files. (Once execution paths have diverged, continuing to emit record-by-record differences is likely to produce output that is far too voluminous to be useful.) It also signals an error when it detects incompatible program point declarations or when one file is shorter than the other.

DtraceDiff is invoked as follows:

java daikon.tools.DtraceDiff [flags] \
   [declsfiles1] dtracefile1  [declsfiles2] dtracefile2

Corresponding declarations (.decls) files can optionally be specified on the command line before each of the two .dtrace files. Multiple .decls files can be specified. If no .decls file is specified, DtraceDiff assumes that the declarations are included in the .dtrace file instead.

DtraceDiff supports the following Daikon command-line flags:

--help

Print usage message.

--config filename

Load the configuration settings specified in the given file. See Configuration options, for details.

--config_option name=value

Specify a single configuration setting. See Configuration options, for details.

--ppt-select-pattern=ppt_regexp

Only process program points whose names match the regular expression.

--ppt-omit-pattern=ppt_regexp

Do not process program points whose names match the regular expression. This takes priority over the --ppt-select-pattern argument.

--var-select-pattern=ppt_regexp

Only process variables (whether in the trace file or derived) whose names match the regular expression.

--var-omit-pattern=var_regexp

Ignore variables (whether in the trace file or derived) whose names match the regular expression, which uses Perl syntax. This takes priority over the --var-select-pattern argument.

DtraceDiff uses appropriate comparisons for the type of the variables in each program point being compared. In particular:


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9 Troubleshooting

This chapter gives solutions for certain problems you might have with Daikon. It also tells you how to report bugs in a useful manner.

If, after reading this section and other parts of the manual, you are unable to solve your problem, you may wish to send mail to one of the mailing lists (see Mailing lists).


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9.1 Problems running Daikon

You may find the debugging flags --debug and --dbg category useful if you wish to track down bugs or better understand Daikon’s operation; see Daikon debugging options. See Configuration options, for another way to adjust Daikon’s output.


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9.1.1 Can’t run Daikon: NoClassDefFoundError

If you can’t run Daikon at all and you get an error such as

Exception in thread "main" java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: daikon/Chicory

then you have not put daikon.jar on your classpath; see Simple installation.

More generally, an error such as

Exception in thread "main" java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: plume/FuzzyFloat

means that Java did not find the class plume/FuzzyFloat on your classpath. To debug such a problem, you need to determine your classpath (it’s your CLASSPATH environment variable under Mac/Linux), and the location of file plume/FuzzyFloat.class or of the jar file that contains it.


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9.1.2 Too much output

Sometimes, Daikon may produce a very large number of seemingly irrelevant properties that obscure the facts that you were hoping to see. Which properties are irrelevant depends on your current task, so Daikon provides ways for you to customize its output. See Daikon’s command-line options (see Running Daikon), and the techniques for enhancing its output (see Enhancing Daikon output), including its configuration options (see Configuration options). The options for the front ends — such as Chicory (see Chicory options) and Kvasir (see Kvasir options) — give additional control.

Some irrelevant properties are over unrelated variables, like comparing an array index to elements of the array. You should always use the DynComp tool (see DynComp for Java, DynComp for C/C++) to avoid producing such properties.

Some irrelevant properties are not relevant to the domain (e.g., bitwise operations). You can exclude whole classes of unhelpful invariants from Daikon’s output (see Options to enable/disable specific invariants).

Some irrelevant properties are over variables you do not care about, or are in parts of the program that you do not care about. You can exclude certain variables or procedures from Daikon’s output (see Processing only part of the trace file and Options to enable/disable derived variables).

Some irrelevant properties are logically redundant — multiple properties express the same facts in different ways. You can eliminate such properties from Daikon’s output (see Options to control invariant detection).

Some irrelevant output indicates a deficiency in your test suite: your test suite is so small that many arbitrary properties hold over it. This happens when the test suite does not execute the code with a broad distribution of values, but only executes the code with a few specific values. This problem disappears if you augment your test suite so that it exercises the code with more different values.

More generally, each property that Daikon produces is a true fact about how the target program behaved. However, some of these facts would be true for any execution of the target program, and others are accidents of the particular executions that Daikon observed. Both types of facts may be useful: the former tell you about your program, and the latter tell you about your test suite (and how to improve it!).


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9.1.3 Missing output invariants

Daikon may sometimes fail to output invariants that you expect it to output. Here are some reasons why this may happen:

There are two command-line options (--disc_reason and --track) that will display information about invariants that are not printed. The --disc_reason option will indicate why a particular invariant was discarded in most cases. If it does not provide enough information, try the --track option which traces the invariant through all of Daikon’s processing steps. See Daikon debugging options for more information.

Note that in each case the description (class, variables, program point) of the invariant must be entered carefully. It may be helpful to try the option on a similar invariant that is printed to make sure that each is specified correctly.


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9.1.4 True invariants are not reported due to output filters

Sometimes, Daikon does not report an invariant, even though Daikon has computed that the invariant is true throughout the sample data. Daikon only reports invariants that satisfy all the output filters (see Invariant filters).

Here, we discuss two common reasons for filtering: statistical justification, and implication.

Daikon only reports a property if it is statistically justified, and Daikon needs to see enough samples for the statistical test to work. So, there may be a property that is true, but if too few samples were seen, then Daikon will not report it. In a longer trace, Daikon would report the property. You can adjust Daikon’s confidence limit so that the property is reported even in the short executions; see the command-line option --conf_limit. For instance, supplying --conf_limit 0 causes all properties that have not been falsified to be printed.

Daikon does not report redundant, or implied, invariants (see Redundant invariants). The purpose of this is to avoid cluttering the output with facts that add no new information. Here are a few examples:


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9.1.5 No samples and no output

When Daikon produces no output, that is usually a result of it having no samples from which to generalize. Use the --output_num_samples flag to Daikon to find out how many samples it is observing. This section tells you how to debug your problem if the answer is 0, but you believe that there are samples in the file you are feeding to Daikon.

Using the normal dataflow hierarchy, Daikon only explicitly processes :::EXIT program points. Other program points, such as :::ENTER program points, are processed indirectly when their corresponding :::EXIT points are encountered. (You can disable this behavior with the --nohierarchy switch to Daikon; see Options to control invariant detection.) If no :::EXIT program points are present (perhaps every execution threw an exception, you filtered out all the :::EXIT program points, or the data trace is obtained from spreadsheet data instead of from a program execution), then Daikon will not process any of the other program points, such as the :::ENTER program points. You can make Daikon print information about unmatched procedure entries via the ‘daikon.FileIO.unmatched_procedure_entries_quiet’ configuration option (see General configuration options).

Another way to increase the number of invariants printed out is to lower the confidence bound cutoff. Daikon only prints invariants whose confidence level is greater than the bound specified by the --conf_limit option (see Options to control invariant detection). In order to maximize the number of invariants printed, use --conf_limit 0 to see all invariants Daikon is considering printing.

To try to determine why an invariant is not printed, use the --track to determine why Daikon does not print an invariant (see Daikon debugging options).


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9.1.6 No return from procedure

Daikon sometimes issues a warning that a procedure in the target program was entered but never exited (that is, the target program abnormally terminated). In other words, the .dtrace file contains more entry records than exit records for the given procedure. Some procedures that were entered were never recorded to have exited: either they threw an exception, skipping the instrumentation code that would have recorded normal termination, or the target program’s run was interrupted. When this happens, the entry sample is ignored; the rationale is that the particular values seen led to exception exit, were probably illegal, and so should not be factored into the method preconditions.

In some cases, exceptional exit from a procedure can cause procedure entries and exits (in the trace file) to be incorrectly matched up; if they are incorrectly matched, then the orig(x) values may be incorrect. Daikon has two techniques for associate procedure exits with entries — the nonce technique and the stack technique. If a .dtrace file uses the nonce technique, orig(x) values are guaranteed to be correct. If a .dtrace file uses the stack technique, then incorrect orig(x) values are likely to occur. You can tell which technique Daikon will use by examining the .dtrace file. If the second line of each entry in the .dtrace file is ‘this_invocation_nonce’, then Daikon uses the nonce technique. Otherwise, it uses the stack technique. Which technique is used is determined by the front end, which creates the .dtrace file, and typically cannot be controlled by the user.


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9.1.7 Unsupported class version

Daikon requires a Java 7 (or newer) JVM (see Requirements). An error such as

Exception in thread "main" java.lang.UnsupportedClassVersionError:
daikon/Daikon (Unsupported major.minor version 51.0)

indicates that you are trying to run Daikon on an older JVM. You need to install a newer version of Java in order to run Daikon.


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9.1.8 Out of memory

If Daikon runs out of memory, generating a message like

Exception in thread "main" java.lang.OutOfMemoryError
    <<no stack trace available>>

then it is likely that it has created more invariants than will fit in memory. The number of invariants created depends on the number of program points and the number of variables at each program point. In addition to the solutions discussed in Reducing program points, you can try increasing the amount of memory available to Java with the -Xmx argument to java. (This flag is JVM-specific; see your JVM documentation for details. For instance, its name in JDK versions 1.2 and earlier is -mx.) However, the value you use should be less your system’s total amount of physical memory. The default may be 64 megabytes or less; to permit use of up to 256 megabytes, you would run Java like so:

java -Xmx256m ...

If you are using Chicory’s --daikon command-line argument to run Daikon, then you must separately indicate the amount of memory available to Chicory and to Daikon (the latter with Chicory’s --heap-size command-line argument). For example:

java -Xmx256m daikon.Chicory --daikon --heap-size=1600m \
    mypackage.MyClass arg1 arg2 arg3

When using the Java HotSpot JVM, an additional parameter may need to be increased. HotSpot uses a separately-limited memory region, called the permanent generation, for several special kinds of allocation, one of which (interned strings) Daikon sometimes uses heavily. It may be necessary to increase this limit as well, with the -XX:MaxPermSize= option. For instance, to use 512 megabytes, of which at most 256 can be used for the permanent generation, you would run Java like so:

java -Xmx512m -XX:MaxPermSize=256m

Another possible problem is the creation of too many derived variables. If you supply the --output_num_samples option to Daikon (see Options to control Daikon output), then it will list all variables at each program point. If some of these are of no interest, you may wish to suppress their creation. For information on how to do that, see Options to enable/disable derived variables. Also see Reducing variables for other techniques.

Any output generated before the out-of-memory error is perfectly valid.


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9.1.9 Simplify errors

The warning ‘Could not utilize Simplify’ indicates that the Simplify theorem-prover could not be run; this usually indicates that the Simplify binary was not found on the user’s path. Simplify must be separately obtained (from http://www.hpl.hp.com/downloads/crl/jtk/) and installed.

If Simplify is not used, certain redundant (logically implied) invariants may appear in Daikon’s output. The output is correct, but more verbose than it would be if you used Simplify.


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9.1.10 Contradictory invariants

The invariants Daikon produces are all true statements about the supplied program executions, so they should be mutually consistent. Sometimes, however, because of a bug or a limitation in Daikon, contradictory invariants are produced.

One known problem involves object invariants. Daikon infers object invariants by observing the state of an object when its public methods are called. However, if an object has publicly accessible fields that are changed by code outside the class, after which no public methods are called, invariants about the state of the object as seen by other code can contradict the class’s object invariants. A workaround is to allow changes to an object’s state from outside the class only by way of public methods.

Besides confusing the user, contradictory invariants also cause trouble for the Simplify theorem prover that implements the --suppress_redundant option. When the invariants at a particular program point contradict each other or background information (such as the types of objects), Simplify becomes unable to distinguish redundant invariants from non-redundant ones.

The best solution in such cases is to fix the underlying cause of the contradictory invariants, but since that is sometimes not possible, Daikon will try to work around the problem by avoiding the invariants that cause a contradiction. Daikon will attempt to find a small subset of the invariants that aren’t mutually consistent, and remove one, repeating this process until the remaining invariants are consistent. (Note that the invariants are removed only for the purposes of processing by Simplify; this does not affect whether they will be printed in the final output). While this technique can allow redundant invariants to be found when they otherwise wouldn’t be, it has some drawbacks: the choice of which invariant to remove is somewhat arbitrary, and the process of finding contradictory subsets can be time consuming. The removal process can be disabled with the daikon.simplify.LemmaStack.remove_contradictions configuration option.


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9.1.11 Method needs to be implemented

Daikon may produce output like the following (but all on one line):

method daikon.inv.binary.twoSequence.SubSequence.format_esc()
needs to be implemented:
this.theArray[0..this.topOfStack] is a subsequence of
orig(this.theArray[0..this.topOfStack])

This indicates that a particular invariant (shown on the last two lines above) cannot be formatted using the current formatting. In this example, the invariant can be formatted using Daikon’s default formatting (which is how it is shown above), but (as of April 2002) Daikon cannot output it in ESC format, so Daikon prints the above message instead. The message also shows exactly what Java method needs to be implemented to correct the problem. You can ignore such messages, or else use an output formatting that can handle those invariants. Annotate (see Annotate) automatically ignores unformattable invariants.


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9.1.12 Daikon runs slowly

It can sometimes be slow to create a trace for Daikon to analyze, and it can be slow for Daikon to analyze that trace.

If Daikon runs too slowly, the problem may be that Daikon is spending too much time collecting, then outputting, large amounts of data about your program execution.

For additional details on improving Daikon’s performance, see Out of memory, and Large dtrace files.

9.1.12.1 Slow creation of large trace files

Creating a trace can take a long time, because of the time to traverse and print the values of many variables. If your invariant detection process runs slowly, you might want to separate the creation and analysis of the trace file, to help you understand which part (or both) are at fault. Reducing the number of program points or variables can speed up both creation and analysis of trace files. For instance, you might eliminate helper procedures from the analysis, or eliminate large arrays that get repeatedly output.

9.1.12.2 Slow inference of invariants

Daikon’s runtime and space depend on the particular data that it analyzes. Informally, invariant detection time can be characterized as

O((vars^3 * falsetime + trueinvs * testsuite) * procedures)

where vars is the number of variables at a program point, falsetime is the (small constant) time to falsify a potential invariant, trueinvs is the (small) number of true invariants at a program point, testsuite is the size of the test suite, and procedures is the number of instrumented program points. The first two products multiply a number of invariants by the time to test each invariant.

If there are many true invariants over an input, then Daikon continues to check them all over the entire input. By contrast, if not many invariants are true, then Daikon need no longer check them once they are falsified (which in practice happens quickly). Daikon processes each procedure independently.

Another important factor affecting Daikon’s runtime is the number of variables. Because invariants involve up to three variables each, the number of invariants to check is cubic in the number of variables at a single program point. Derived variables (such as a[i], introduced whenever there is both an array a and an integer i) can increase the number of variables substantially. The daikon.derive.Derivation.disable_derived_variables and individual daikon.derive.*.*.enabled configuration variables (see Options to enable/disable derived variables) may be used to disable derived variables altogether or selectively, at the cost of detecting fewer invariants, especially over sequences.


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9.1.13 Bigger traces cause invariants to appear

Suppose that you run Daikon twice. The first time, you supply Daikon with traces T. The second time you supply Daikon with traces T+T’: either more files, or file(s) that are supersets of the original one(s). The second Daikon execution may report fewer invariants, more invariants, or a mix.

The second execution may report fewer invariants, because the additional data has eliminated overfitting (false positives). There may have been some accidental property of the shorter executions that is not true in the longer ones.

Even though fewer invariants are true on the second execution, Daikon may report invariants that it did not report on the first execution. The invariants were true on the first execution, but were not reported by Daikon. True invariants are not reported due to output filters describes why this might happen.


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9.2 Large data trace (.dtrace) files

Running instrumented code can create very large .dtrace files. This can be a problem because writing the large files can slow the target programs substantially, or because the large files may fill up your disk.

This section describes ways to work around this problem.


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9.2.1 Compressed .dtrace files

You can reduce file size by specifying a trace file name that includes .gz at the end. See the --dtrace-file=FILENAME argument to Chicory or Kvasir, or the DTRACEFILE environment variable. (Compression is the default if you don’t specify a filename.)


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9.2.2 Save large files in a scratch directory

Sometimes, the problem is just filling up your user account with large files. You can instead create .dtrace files in a temporary directory. Under Linux, this is often called /scratch. Typically you should create a subdirectory called /scratch/$USER/.


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9.2.3 Run Daikon online

The term online execution refers to running Daikon at the same time as the target program. The front end supplies information to Daikon directly over a socket or pipe, without writing any information to a file. This can avoid some I/O overhead, and it prevents filling up your disk with files.

The Chicory front end supports online execution via use of the --daikon-online option (see Chicory miscellaneous options). The Kvasir front end supports online execution via use of (normal or named) Linux pipes (see Online execution).

In the future, Daikon may be able to output partial results as the target program is executing.


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9.2.4 Create multiple smaller data trace files

It is usually possible to create an .inv file equivalent to the one that Daikon would have computed, had Daikon been able to process your entire program over its full test suite. First, use the techniques below (see Reducing program points) to split your .dtrace file into parts. Next, run Daikon on each resulting .dtrace file. Finally, use the MergeInvariants tool to combine the resulting .inv files into one.


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9.2.5 Record or read less information in the data trace file

You can record less information from each program execution, or you can make Daikon read less information from the trace files. It’s usually most efficient to do the pruning as early in the process as possible. For example, it is better to have the front end output less information, rather than have Daikon ignore some of the information.


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9.2.5.1 Reducing program points (functions)

Here are ways to compute invariants over a subset of the program points (functions) in your program.

  1. Make your front end instrument fewer files. This is often mast applicable if you are using a source-based front end.
  2. You can instrument fewer procedures.

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9.2.5.2 Reducing variables

Here are ways to compute invariants over a subset of the variables in your program. This changes the resulting invariants, because invariants over the missing variables (including any relationship between a missing variable and a retained variable) are not detected or reported. For instance, you might remove uninteresting variables (or ones that shouldn’t be compared to certain others) or variables that use a lot of memory (such as some arrays).

  1. You can reduce the number of variables that are output by instrumented code — for instance, output ‘a’ and ‘a.b’ but not ‘a.b.c’. Do this by reducing the class/structure instrumentation depth.
  2. With Kvasir, you can either ignore all global and/or static variables with the --ignore-globals and --ignore-static-vars options or manually specify a subset of variables to trace using the --var-list-file option (see Tracing only part of a program for details)
  3. You can pare down an existing .dtrace file using the trace-purge-vars.pl script. Analogously to the trace-purge-fns.pl script, it removes certain variables from all program points in a function (or retains them, with the -v flag). After running this command, you will need to edit the corresponding .decls file by hand to remove the same variables.
  4. You can make Daikon ignore certain variables rather than modifying the .dtrace file directly. Analogously with the --ppt-select-pattern and --ppt-omit-pattern flags, the --var-select-pattern and --var-omit-pattern flags restrict which variables Daikon processes. (See Processing only part of the trace file, and Chicory options).

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9.2.5.3 Reducing executions

Here are ways to run Daikon over fewer executions of each program point. (You cannot combine the resulting invariants in order to obtain the same result as running Daikon over all the executions.)

  1. If you have multiple .dtrace files (perhaps resulting from multiple program runs), you can run Daikon on just some of them.
  2. You can terminate the instrumented program when it has created a sufficiently large .dtrace file. If you interrupt the program while it is in the middle of writing a record to the .dtrace file, the last record may be only partially written. Use the daikon/scripts/trace-untruncate program to remove the last, possibly partial, record from the file:
    trace-untruncate myfile.dtrace
    

    modifies myfile.dtrace in place to remove the last record.

    Alternately, you can use the daikon/scripts/trace-untruncate-fast program. It operates much faster on very large files. In order to use trace-untruncate-fast, you must have already compiled it (see Installing Daikon).

  3. You can cause the front end to record only a subset of executions of a given procedure, rather than every execution. For example, Chicory’s --sample-start command-line option does this (see Chicory miscellaneous options).

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9.3 Parsing Java 5.0 code

The Annotate (see Annotate) and runtimechecker (see Runtime-check instrumenter) tools use an external library (JTB, http://compilers.cs.ucla.edu/jtb/) for parsing Java code. That external library has an error in parsing logical shift operators such as x << y or x >> y. Therefore, such invariants (along with a few other invariants that cannot be properly formatted as Java code) are suppressed from the output of these tools. (Annotate inserts them as comments, and runtimechecker silently ignores them.)


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9.4 Problems with Chicory

Before reporting or investigating a problem with Chicory, always check that the program executes properly when not being run under Chicory’s control.

For example, if a command such as

java daikon.Chicory DataStructures.StackArTester

fails with an error, then first try

java DataStructures.StackArTester

which is likely to fail with the same error.

If the latter command also fails, the problem is not with Chicory. First solve your Java problem, then once again attempt to use Chicory.

If the latter command does not fail, then you have found a bug in Chicory; please report it if it is not already explained in this manual.


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9.4.1 VerifyError constant pool index error

If Chicory throws an error such as the following:

Exception in thread "main" java.lang.VerifyError:
  (class: ps1/PublicTest, method: <init> signature: (Ljava/lang/String;)V)
  Illegal constant pool index

then the problem is most likely that your classpath contains a version of the BCEL library that is not compatible with Java 7. The incompatible version might appear in bcel.jar, in Java’s rt.jar, or elsewhere. You should either remove that version of BCEL from your classpath, or you should ensure that it appears after daikon.jar, which contains its own version of BCEL. (If you are running Daikon from sources rather than from daikon.jar, then ensure that $DAIKONDIR/java/lib/bcel.jar is the first version of BCEL on your classpath.)


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9.5 Reporting problems

If you have any questions, can suggest ways to improve the documentation, find bugs in the system, or have suggestions for its improvement, please send email to daikon-developers@googlegroups.com. (If you can’t figure out how to do something or do not understand why Daikon works the way it does, that is a bug, too — in the Daikon documentation. Please report those as well.) We will try to assist you and to correct any problems, so please don’t hesitate to ask for help or report difficulties. Additionally, if you can contribute enhancements or bug fixes, those will be gratefully accepted.

In order for us to assist you, please provide a complete and useful bug report. Your bug report must provide all the information that is required in order to replicate the bug and verify that our fix corrects the problem. If you do not provide complete information, we will not be able to assist you.

Your bug report should include:

When users provide an inadequate bug report, it is frequently more difficult for us to reproduce an error than to correct it. If you make it easy for us to reproduce and verify the problem, then it is much more likely to be corrected. Thanks for helping us to help you!

You may also wish to take advantage of the Daikon mailing lists (see Mailing lists).


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9.6 Known bugs


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9.7 Further reading

More information on Daikon can be found in the Daikon Developer Manual (see Introduction in Daikon Developer Manual). For instance, the Daikon Developer Manual indicates how to extend Daikon with new invariants, new derived variables, and front ends for new languages. It also contains information about the implementation and about how to debug.

You may find discussions on the mailing lists (see Mailing lists) helpful. The mailing list archives may contain helpful information, but we strive to incorporate that information in this manual so that you don’t have to search the archives as well.

For further reading, see the list of publications at the Daikon homepage, http://plse.cs.washington.edu/daikon/pubs/.


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10 Details

The Daikon invariant detector is named after an Asian radish. “Daikon” is pronounced like the combination of the two one-syllable English words “die-con”.

More information on Daikon can be found in the Daikon Developer Manual (see Introduction in Daikon Developer Manual). For instance, the Daikon Developer Manual indicates how to extend Daikon with new invariants, new derived variables, and front ends for new languages. It also contains information about the implementation and about debugging flags.


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10.1 History

This manual describes Daikon version 5.0.6, released March 28, 2014. A more detailed list of revisions since mid-2001 can be found in file daikon/doc/CHANGES in the distribution; this section gives a high-level view of the package’s history.

There have been four major releases of Daikon, with different features and capabilities. User experiences and technical papers should be judged based on the version of Daikon current at the time of use.

Daikon 1 was written in the Python programming language in 1998. It included front ends for C, Java, and Lisp. The C front end was extremely limited and failed to operate correctly on all C programs: sometimes it suffered a segmentation fault while instrumenting a target program, and even when that did not happen, sometimes the instrumented program segmentation-faulted while running. The Lisp front end operated correctly on all Lisp programs, but only instrumented certain common constructs, leaving other language features uninstrumented. The Java front end was reasonably reliable. The Lisp front end instrumented procedure entries, exits, and loop heads; the C front ends instrumented only procedure entries and exits; and the Java front end instrumented program points for object invariants as well as procedure entries and exits. Daikon 1 and its Lisp front end were only removed from Daikon version control repository in November 2010, though they had long been obsolete.

Daikon 2 was a complete rewrite in the Java programming language and was the first version to contain a substantive manual. Daikon 2 uses the same source-based Java front end as did Daikon 1, though with certain enhancements. Its C front end was rewritten from scratch; it instruments only procedure entries and exits. A front end also exists for the Input Output Automaton programming language, but is not included in the Daikon distribution.

Daikon 3 is a redesign of the invariant detection engine to work incrementally — that is, to examine each sample (execution of a program point) once, then discard it. By contrast, Daikon 1 and Daikon 2 made multiple passes over the data. This simplified their algorithms but required storing all the data in memory at once, which was prohibitive, particularly since data trace files may be gigabytes in size. Daikon 3 also introduces the idea of a dataflow hierarchy, a way to relate and connect program points based on their variables.

Daikon 4 includes new binary front ends for Java and for C. These front ends make Daikon much easier to use. Daikon 4 makes .decls files optional; program point declarations are permitted to appear in .dtrace files. Daikon 4 is released under more liberal licensing conditions that place no restrictions on use.

Daikon 5 adds a new front end (Celeriac) for .NET languages (C#, F#, and Visual Basic). The underlying Valgrind was updated and much work done to ensure Daikon works properly on the latest versions of Linux. The Chicory front end for Java was modified to support Java 7. Daikon releases were moved from MIT to the University of Washington. The bug tracker was moved to Google Code, and mailing lists moved to Google Groups.


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10.2 License

Copyright © 1998-2008 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Copyright © 2008-2014 University of Washington

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the “Software”), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

The names and trademarks of copyright holders may not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to the software without specific prior permission. Title to copyright in this software and any associated documentation will at all times remain with the copyright holders.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED “AS IS”, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NON INFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.


Daikon uses the Java port of the GNU getopt library, which is copyright 1998 Aaron M. Renn. The getopt library is free software, and may be redistributed or modified under the terms of the GNU Library General Public License version 2. A copy of this license is included with the Daikon distribution as the file java/gnu/getopt/COPYING.LIB.

Daikon’s unit tests use the JUnit testing framework, which is governed by the Common Public License, version 1.0. JUnit is provided on an “as is” basis, without warranties or conditions of any kind, either express or implied including, without limitation, any warranties or conditions of title, non-infringement, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. Neither the Daikon developers nor the authors of the JUnit framework shall have any liability for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, exemplary, or consequential damages (including without limitation lost profits), however caused and on any theory of liability, whether in contract, strict liability, or tort (including negligence or otherwise) arising in any way out of the use or distribution of JUnit or the exercise of any rights granted in the Common Public License, even if advised of the possibility of such damages. Those portions of JUnit that appear in the Daikon distribution may be redistributed under the same terms as Daikon itself; this offer is made by the Daikon developers exclusively and not by any other party. The Common Public License is included with the Daikon distribution as the file java/junit/cpl-v10.html.

Note that the front ends discussed in this manual are separate programs, and some are made available under different licenses. Because the front ends are separate programs not derived from the Daikon invariant detection tool, you are neither required nor entitled to use the Daikon invariant detector itself under these other licenses.

The Daikon Perl front end dfepl may be used and distributed under the regular Daikon license or, at your option, either the GNU General Public License or the Perl Artistic License (that is, under the same terms as Perl itself).

The Daikon C/C++ front end Kvasir is based in part on the Valgrind dynamic program supervision framework, copyright 2000-2004 Julian Seward, the Sparrow Valgrind tool, copyright 2002 Nicholas Nethercote, the MemCheck Valgrind tool, copyright 2000-2004 Julian Seward, the readelf program of the GNU Binutils, copyright 1998-2003 the Free Software Foundation, Inc., the GNU C Library, copyright 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000 the Free Software Foundation, Inc., and the Diet libc, copyright Felix von Leitner et al. Kvasir is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. Kvasir is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with Kvasir, in the file kvasir/COPYING; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St., Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.


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10.3 Mailing lists reminder

If you use Daikon, please subscribe to the ‘daikon-announce’ and ‘daikon-discuss’ mailing lists (see Mailing lists). The ‘daikon-announce’ list will inform you of new versions, enhancements, and bug fixes. On the ‘daikon-discuss’ mailing list, you can obtain help from, and offer help to, other users. We would also appreciate a brief description of how you are using Daikon, sent to daikon-developers@googlegroups.com. We are curious about how users exploit Daikon, and we are eager for anecdotes about its successes and failures, so that we can make Daikon more effective for its users.


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10.4 Credits

The following individuals have contributed to Daikon: Yuriy Brun, Jake Cockrell, David Cok, Forrest Coward, Adam Czeisler, Brian Demsky, Alan Donovan, Nii Dodoo, Kellen Donohue, Alan Dunn, Michael Ernst, Eric Fellheimer, William Griswold, Florian Gross, Philip Guo, Melissa Hao, Michael Harder, Dieter von Holten, Greg Jay, Josh Kataoka, Lee Lin, Allen Liu, Sandra Loosemore, Vikash Mansinghka, Stephen McCamant, Samir Meghani, Benjamin Morse, Jelani Nelson, Ryan Newton, Jeremy Nimmer, Toh Ne Win, David Notkin, Carlos Pacheco, Jeff Perkins, Jaime Quinonez, Mark Roberts, Robert Rudd, Alexandru Salcianu, Todd Schiller, Kathryn Shih, Eric Spishak, Laure Thompson, Matthew Tschantz, Iuliu Vasilescu, Chen Xiao, Tao Xie, Jeff Yuan.

Craig Kaplan carved the Daikon logo.

The feedback of Daikon users has been very valuable. We are particularly grateful to B. Thomas Adler, Rich Angros, Tadashi Araragi, Seung Mo Cho, Christoph Csallner, Dorothy Curtis, Juan Pablo Galeotti, Diego Garbervetsky, Mangala Gowri, Madeline Hardojo, Engelbert Hubbers, Nadya Kuzmina, Scott McMaster, Charles O’Donnell, Alex Orso, Rodric Rabbah, Manos Renieris, Rosie Wacha.

Many others have also been generous with their feedback, for which we are also grateful.

If your name has been inadvertently omitted from this section, please let us know so we can correct the oversight.

Financial support has been provided by: National Science Foundation (NSF), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), ABB, Edison Design Group, IBM, NTT, MIT Oxygen Project, Raytheon, Toshiba.


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10.5 Citing Daikon

If you wish to cite Daikon in a publication, we recommend that you reference one of the scholarly papers listed at http://plse.cs.washington.edu/daikon/pubs/#invariant-detection in lieu of, or in addition to, referencing this manual and the Daikon website (http://plse.cs.washington.edu/daikon/).


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General Index

Jump to:   -   .   /   6   :   @   [  
A   B   C   D   E   F   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   R   S   T   U   V   W   X  
Index Entry  Section

-
-1 array index (counts from end of array): Variable names

.
.getClass() variable: Variable names
.inv files, tools for manipulating: Tools for manipulating invariants
.length variable name: Variable names
.NET front end: Celeriac
.spinfo file: Splitter info file format
.toString variable: Variable names

/
/ variable (C global or file-static): Variable names

6
64-bit AMD64 architecture, and Kvasir: Kvasir limitations

:
:::CLASS program point: Program points
:::ENTER program point: Program points
:::EXIT program point: Program points
:::OBJECT program point: Program points

@
@ variable (C function-scoped static): Variable names
@NonNull type inference: AnnotateNullable
@Nullable type inference: AnnotateNullable

[
[] variable name (array contents): Variable names

A
abstract types, for C/C++: DynComp for C/C++
abstract types, for Java: DynComp for Java
AMD64 architecture, and Kvasir: Kvasir limitations
Annotate tool: Annotate
Annotate warning: Daikon knows nothing about field: Annotate
AnnotateNullable tool: AnnotateNullable

B
Basic front end: Celeriac
bugs, reporting: Reporting problems
building Daikon from source: Complete installation

C
C# front end: Celeriac
C/C++ front end: Kvasir
call-site-dependent invariant: Conditional invariants
category, for debugging: Daikon debugging options
category, for debugging: Daikon debugging options
Celeriac (front end for .NET): Celeriac
Chicory (front end for Java): Chicory
Citadel front end for Eiffel: Other front ends
class invariants: Program points
CLASS program point: Program points
cluster analysis for splitters: Cluster analysis for splitters
comma-delimited files: convertcsv.pl
comma-separated-value files: convertcsv.pl
command line options for Daikon: Running Daikon
comparability, for C/C++: DynComp for C/C++
comparability, for Java: DynComp for Java
comparing invariants: Invariant Diff
comparison tool, logical: LogicalCompare
compiling Daikon: Complete installation
conditional invariant: Conditional invariants
confidence limit: Options to control invariant detection
configuration options: Configuration options
constant pool index error, when running Chicory: VerifyError constant pool index error
context-sensitive invariant: Conditional invariants
contradictory invariants: Contradictory invariants
contributors to Daikon: Credits
CreateSpinfo: Static analysis for splitters
CreateSpinfoC: Static analysis for splitters
csv files: convertcsv.pl
Cygwin toolset: Cygwin shell

D
Daikon knows nothing about field: warning from Annotate: Annotate
Daikon output format: Invariant syntax
Daikon version 5.0.6: History
daikon-announce mailing list: Mailing lists
daikon-developers mailing list: Mailing lists
daikon-discuss mailing list: Mailing lists
data trace files, too large: Large dtrace files
DBC output format: Invariant syntax
dcomp_rt.jar file for DynComp: Instrumenting the JDK with DynComp
debugging flags: Daikon debugging options
debugging flags: Daikon debugging options
derived variables, enabling/disabling: Options to enable/disable derived variables
derived variables, explanation of: Variable names
DerivedParameterFilter: Invariant filters
dfepl (front end for Perl): dfepl
diff, over invariants: Invariant Diff
disambiguation of pointer types: Pointer type disambiguation
dkconfig_ variables: Configuration options
dtrace file name: Chicory miscellaneous options
DTRACEAPPEND environment variable: Chicory miscellaneous options
DTRACEFILE environment variable: Chicory miscellaneous options
dummy invariant: Conditional invariants
dynamic comparability, for C/C++: DynComp for C/C++
dynamic comparability, for Java: DynComp for Java
DynComp, for C/C++: DynComp for C/C++
DynComp, for Java: DynComp for Java

E
Eiffel front end: Other front ends
EM64T architecture, and Kvasir: Kvasir limitations
ENTER program point: Program points
environment variable DTRACEAPPEND: Chicory miscellaneous options
environment variable DTRACEFILE: Chicory miscellaneous options
error messages: Troubleshooting
ESC/Java output format: Invariant syntax
Excel files: convertcsv.pl
EXIT program point: Program points
Exiting’, in Daikon output: Interpreting output

F
F# front end: Celeriac
FIFO, as data trace file: Online execution
file name, for dtrace file: Chicory miscellaneous options
filters: Invariant filters
filters, enabling/disabling: Options to enable/disable filters
flags for Daikon: Running Daikon
front end: Front ends (instrumentation)
front end for .NET: Celeriac
front end for Basic: Celeriac
front end for C#: Celeriac
front end for C/C++: Kvasir
front end for Eiffel: Other front ends
front end for F#: Celeriac
front end for IOA: Other front ends
front end for Java: Chicory
front end for Lisp: Other front ends
front end for Lisp: History
front end for Perl: dfepl
front end for Visual Basic: Celeriac

H
has only one value, in invariant output: Has only one value variables
hashcode type, for variables: Has only one value variables
hierarchical cluster analysis: Cluster analysis for splitters
hierarchy of program points: Program points
hierarchy, disabling: Options to control invariant detection
history of Daikon: History
HotSpot JVM: Out of memory

I
IA-32e architecture, and Kvasir: Kvasir limitations
illegal constant pool index error, when running Chicory: VerifyError constant pool index error
implication checking tool: LogicalCompare
implication invariant: Conditional invariants
implied invariant: Invariant filters
inconsistent invariants: Contradictory invariants
inference, of Nullable type: AnnotateNullable
installing Daikon: Installing Daikon
installing Kvasir: Installing Kvasir
instrumentation: Front ends (instrumentation)
instrumentation, of .NET programs: Celeriac
instrumentation, of Basic programs: Celeriac
instrumentation, of C# programs: Celeriac
instrumentation, of C/C++ programs: Kvasir
instrumentation, of Eiffel programs: Other front ends
instrumentation, of F# programs: Celeriac
instrumentation, of IOA programs: Other front ends
instrumentation, of Java programs: Chicory
instrumentation, of Lisp programs: Other front ends
instrumentation, of Perl programs: dfepl
instrumentation, of Visual Basic programs: Celeriac
instrumented JDK, for DynComp: Instrumenting the JDK with DynComp
Intel 64 architecture, and Kvasir: Kvasir limitations
inv files, tools for manipulating: Tools for manipulating invariants
invariant diff: Invariant Diff
invariant filters: Invariant filters
invariant list: Invariant list
invariant merge: MergeInvariants
invariant output format: Invariant syntax
invariant, conditional: Conditional invariants
invariant, dummy: Conditional invariants
invariant, implication: Conditional invariants
InvariantChecker tool: InvariantChecker
invariants, configuring: Other invariant configuration parameters
invariants, contradictory: Contradictory invariants
invariants, enabling/disabling: Options to enable/disable specific invariants
invariants, inconsistent: Contradictory invariants
invariants, list of all: Invariant list
invocation nonce: No return from procedure
IOA front end: Other front ends
irrelevant output from Daikon: Too much output

J
Java front end: Chicory
Java output format: Invariant syntax
java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Out of memory
java.lang.UnsupportedClassVersionError: Unsupported class version
java.lang.VerifyError, when running Chicory: VerifyError constant pool index error
JDK, instrumented for DynComp: Instrumenting the JDK with DynComp
JML output format: Invariant syntax
Jtest DBC output format: Invariant syntax
JVM memory management: Out of memory

K
kmeans cluster analysis: Cluster analysis for splitters
Kvasir (binary front end for C): Kvasir
Kvasir installation: Installing Kvasir

L
large data trace files: Large dtrace files
large trace files, creating: Daikon runs slowly
large trace files, creating: Daikon runs slowly
license: License
linked lists, in Chicory: Variables in Chicory output
Lisp front end: Other front ends
Lisp front end: History
local variables: Variable names
local variables: Loop invariants
Logger: Daikon debugging options
Logger: Daikon debugging options
logging, for debugging Daikon: Daikon debugging options
logging, for debugging Daikon: Daikon debugging options
LogicalCompare tool: LogicalCompare
loop invariants: Loop invariants

M
mailing lists: Mailing lists
major.minor version error: Unsupported class version
memory exhaustion: Out of memory
merge invariants: MergeInvariants
MergeESC tool, see Annotate tool: Annotate
method needs to be implemented warning: Method needs to be implemented
Microsoft Windows: Running Daikon under Windows
mux output: Options to control Daikon output

N
named pipe, as data trace file: Online execution
needs to be implemented warning: Method needs to be implemented
negative array index (counts from end of array): Variable names
no output from Daikon: No samples
no return from procedure, warning: No return from procedure
nonce, invocation: No return from procedure
NonNull type inference: AnnotateNullable
nonsensical values for variables: Variable names
nonsensical values for variables, guarding.: General configuration options
nonsensical values, ignored when computing invaraints: Interpreting output
Nullable type inference: AnnotateNullable

O
object invariants: Program points
OBJECT program point: Program points
observer methods, as synonym for pure methods: Variables in Chicory output
ObviousFilter: Invariant filters
on-the-fly execution, for C programs: Online execution
online execution, for C programs: Online execution
OnlyConstantVariablesFilter: Invariant filters
orig() variable (pre-state value): Variable names
orig() variable (pre-state value): orig variable example
out of memory error: Out of memory
output format, Daikon: Invariant syntax
output format, DBC: Invariant syntax
output format, ESC/Java: Invariant syntax
output format, for invariants: Invariant syntax
output format, Java: Invariant syntax
output format, JML: Invariant syntax
output format, Jtest DBC: Invariant syntax
output format, Simplify: Invariant syntax

P
ParentFilter: Invariant filters
Perl front end: dfepl
permanent generation (in HotSpot JVM): Out of memory
pipe, as data trace file: Online execution
pointer type disambiguation: Pointer type disambiguation
post() variable (post-state value): Variable names
post-state variables: Variable names
postcondition: Program points
pre-state variables: Variable names
precondition: Program points
printing invariants: Printing invariants
PrintInvariants program: Printing invariants
private methods: Program points
private variables: Variables in Chicory output
problems, reporting: Reporting problems
program point: Program points
program point hierarchy: Program points
pure methods: Variables in Chicory output
Python implementation of Daikon: History

R
random selection for splitters: Random selection for splitters
redundant invariant: Invariant filters
reporting bugs: Reporting problems
reporting problems: Reporting problems
representation invariants: Program points
return from procedure, warning: No return from procedure
runcluster.pl program: Cluster analysis for splitters
runtime, of Daikon: Daikon runs slowly
runtime-check instrumenter: Runtime-check instrumenter
runtimechecker instrumenter: Runtime-check instrumenter

S
samples breakdown output: Options to control Daikon output
sampling of program point executions: Program points in Chicory output
Simplify output format: Invariant syntax
Simplify theorem prover, configuring: Simplify interface configuration options
Simplify, could not utilize: Simplify errors
SimplifyFilter: Invariant filters
slow operation, of Daikon: Daikon runs slowly
spinfo file: Splitter info file format
splitter info file: Splitter info file format
Splitters, configuring: Splitter options
Splitters, configuring: Debugging options
splitting: Conditional invariants
splitting condition: Conditional invariants
splitting conditions, cluster analysis: Cluster analysis for splitters
splitting conditions, random selection: Random selection for splitters
splitting conditions, static analysis: Static analysis for splitters
spreadsheet files: convertcsv.pl
static analysis for splitters: Static analysis for splitters
Static fields (global variables) in Java programs: Static fields (global variables)

T
tab-separated files: convertcsv.pl
temporary (local) variables: Variable names
this_invocation_nonce: No return from procedure
too much output from Daikon: Too much output
trace file name: Chicory miscellaneous options
trace-purge-fns.pl script: Reducing program points
trace-untruncate program: Reducing executions
TraceSelect tool: Random selection for splitters
troubleshooting: Troubleshooting
type inference, Nullable: AnnotateNullable

U
UnjustifiedFilter: Invariant filters
unmatched entries, not ignoring: Options to control invariant detection
UnmodifiedVariableEqualityFilter: Invariant filters
UnsupportedClassVersionError: Unsupported class version
useless output from Daikon: Too much output

V
variables, local: Variable names
variables, omit: Variables in Chicory output
variables, private: Variables in Chicory output
variables, temporary (local): Variable names
VerifyError, when running Chicory: VerifyError constant pool index error
Visual Basic front end: Celeriac

W
warning messages: Troubleshooting
Windows: Running Daikon under Windows
WriteViolationFile tool: Accessing violations

X
xm cluster analysis: Cluster analysis for splitters

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